A&P 3.12 Respiratory system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 3.12 Respiratory system Deck (28):
1

Scalenes

Anterior
Middle
Posterior

2

Anterior scalenes

A, I, O

Superior attachment - front of TP C3-C6

Inferior attachment - inner, upper edge of first rib

Action - lateral flexion of the neck, flexion

3

Middle scalenes

A,I, O

Superior attachment - back of TP C2-C7

Inferior attachment - outer, upper edge of first rib

Action - lateral flexion of the neck

4

Posterior scalenes

A, I, O

Superior attachment - back of TP C5, or C6, C7

Inferior attachment - lateral surface of 2nd, sometimes 3rd rib

Action - lateral flexion of the neck

5

Intercostals

A, I, O

Superior attachment: external/internal - inferior border of rib above

Inferior attachment: external/internal - superior border of rib below

Actions:

External - assist inspiration by contracting
Internal - assist expiration by contracting

6

Respiration

Process of air exchange in the body

Air moves into the lungs where air pressure inside the lungs is less than air pressure in the atmosphere
Air moves out of the lungs when air pressure is greater than pressure in the atmosphere

7

3 types of ventilation

Pulmonary ventilation
External respiration
Internal respiration

8

Pulmonary ventilation

Inhalation and exchange - exchanges gasses between the atmosphere and lungs

9

External respiration

Air goes from the external environment in the lungs into our body
Exchange of gasses between the lungs and the Hb stream

10

Internal respiration

Deep within our body
Exchange of gasses between the blood at capillaries and tissues
Everywhere but the lungs

AKA cellular respiration within cells
Cells use the oxygen and carbon dioxide as a waste product

11

Inhalation

Primary muscles that contract

ACTIVE
Muscles that contract- diaphragm 75% (contracts by flattening), external intercostals 25% ( take ribs up and out, expanding for inhalation)

12

Active inhalation

Accessory muscles

Accessory muscle for inhalation
Scalenes
SCM
Pectoralis minor

13

Exhalation

USUALLY PASSIVE
Occurs when muscles relax

Forced exhalation occurs with exercise, sneezing, coughing, playing a wind instrument


14

Forced exhalation

Muscles - contraction of internal intercostals and all abdominal muscles during forced exhalation

15

Breathing

5

Normal full breathing
Shallow breathing
Eupnea
Apnea
Dysnea

16

Normal full breathing

Diaphragmatic breathing

17

Shallow breathing

Costal/chest breathing

18

Eupnea

Another name for normal quiet breathing
12-17 breaths/minute

19

Apnea

An absence of breathing
Can lead to hypertension, death

20

Dyspnea

Difficulty breathing

21

Hypoxia

Lack of oxygen in our tissues

22

Ischemia

Lack of blood flow

23

Blood transport of gasses

Red blood cell picks up oxygen (98+%)
Goes to left atrium
Exits heart via aorta to body
Releases oxygen to cells
Carbon dioxide picked up by plasma (70%) and RBC (23%)

24

Regulation of breathing mechanisms

Homeostasis is usually maintained by changing rate and depth of breathing
Medulla controls rhythmic breathing
Cerebrum can voluntary control breathing within limits

25

Influences on respiration

Anticipation of activity
Temperature
Pain
Stretching of anal sphincter
Irritation to airways
Emotion - lymbic system

26

Disorders associated with respiratory function

Restrictive or obstructive

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Restrictive disorders

Fibrosis
Obesity
Spinal deformation
Autoimmune - RA

28

Obstructive

Bronchitis
COPD
Emphysema
asthma