A&P 3.15 Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 3.15 Nutrition Deck (55):
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Suboccipital muscles

4

Rectus CAPITIS posterior major
Rectus CAPITIS posterior minor
Obliquus CAPITIS superior
Obliquus CAPITIS inferior

Deepest muscles in the neck

1

Rectus CAPITIS posterior major

A,I,o

Origin: spinous process axis (c2)

Insertion: inferior nuchal line of occiput

Action: all contribute to neck extension (postural), rock and tilt head into extension, rotate head to same side

2

Rectus CAPITIS posterior minor

Origin: tubercle of posterior arch of atlas (c1)

Insertion: inferior nuchal line of occiput

Action: all contribute to neck extension (postural), rock and tilt head into extension
Superior to major

3

Obliquuis CAPITIS superior

A,I, o

Origin: transverse process of atlas (c1)

Insertion: between nuchal lines of occiput

Action: all contribute to neck extension (postural), rock and tilt head into extension, laterally flexes to same side

4

Obloquus CAPITIS inferior

A, I, o

Origin: spinous process of axis (c2)

Insertion: transverse process of the atlas (c1)

Action: all contribute to neck extension (postural), rotate head to same side

5

Look at atlas and axis parts

.

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Nutrition

Defined

The foods we eat and the nutrients they contain

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Nutrients

Define

6 primary

Chemical substances in foods that body cells use for growth, maintenance and repair

Water, carbs, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals

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Water

Nutrient needed in the largest amount
2-8 liters per day
Medium in which metabolic actions occur

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Carbs, lipids, proteins, vitamins & minerals provide

Energy needed for metabolic reactions and serve as building blocks to make structure

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Carbohydrates

Organic compounds-sugars, glycogen, starches and cellulose

Sugar and starches are the primary sources for chemical energy
Simple or complex

11

3 types of carbohydrates

Polysaccharides
Disaccharides
Monosaccharides

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Polysaccharides

Poly - many or complex
Need to be broken down to be absorbed
Starches in vegetables, grains and other plant tissue
Broken down into simple carbs before absorption

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Disaccharides

Di- double/complex
Need to be broken down before absorption
Refined sugars, sucrose, lactose,maltose

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Monosaccharides

Mono-simple
Absorbed directly
Fructose, glucose, galactose

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Lipids

Organic compounds- fats, oils, related substances

Triglycerides
Phospholipids
Cholesterol

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Triglycerides

Most common in diet
Stores energy (body fat)

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Phospholipids

Form cell membranes (plasma membranes)

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Cholesterol

A steroid
Also needed for cell membranes

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Dietary fats characterized as

Saturated or unsaturated

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Saturated

All available chemical bonds are filled or saturated with hydrogen atoms
Usually solid at room temperature

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Unsaturated

Not all bonding sites are filled
Usually liquid at room temperature

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Proteins

Large molecules made up of chains of amino acids
Used for structure (collagen) and in the following processes: transport, movement, defense and regulation
Sources: meat and animal protein, non-meat sources (lack required amino acids): nuts, whole grains, legumes

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Amino acids

Building blocks of proteins
Approximately 20 amino acids

Essential and non-essential

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Essential amino acids

Not produced by the body
Needed to be acquired from the diet

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Non-essential

Produced/synthesized by the body

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Vitamins

Organic nutrients required in small amounts to maintain growth and normal metabolism

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Role of vitamins in the body

Do not provide energy or serves as building materials
Most vitamins with known functions are coenzymes
Most cannot be produced by the body
Must be ingested in food
EXCEPTIONS INCLUDE VITAMINS D & K

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2 main groups of vitamins

Fat soluble
Water soluble

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Fat soluble

A, D, E & K
CAN BE STORED

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Water soluble

B & C
CANNOT BE STORED

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Minerals

Inorganic elements that occur naturally in the earth
Some functions as catalysts
Some work in buffer systems

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Metabolism

Greek for change or overthrow
Complex, intertwining set of chemical processes

Includes anabolism and catabolism

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Food molecules absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract have three main fates:

Supply energy - carbohydrates
Serve as building blocks - protein (amino acids)
Stored for future use - lipids

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Anabolism and catabolism

Metabolic pathways
Inside cells that happen continuously and concurrently

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Anabolism

Ana-upwards
Builds/synthesis
Uses energy
Larger molecules from smaller

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Catabolism

Cata-downward
Breaks down/releases energy
Breaks food down into simpler compounds

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Preferred carbohydrate for use by cells

Glucose
Used for
ATP production, amino acid synthesis, glycogen synthesis, triglyceride synthesis

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ATP production

Glucose used to produce ATP for immediate energy

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Amino acid synthesis

Used to for several amino acids

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Glycogen synthesis

Hepatocytes (liver cells) and muscle fibers can perform GLYCOGENESIS

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GLYCOGENESIS

Glyco- sugar, genesis-to generate
Glucose turned into glycogen

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Triglyceride synthesis

When glycogen storage areas are filled up, liver cells can transform glucose to glycerol & fatty acids that can be used for lipogenesis
Triglycerides are the stored I adipose tissue which has virtually UNLIMITED STORAGE CAPACITY

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Glycogenolysis

Opposite of GLYCOGENESIS
Process of breaking down glycogen molecules

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Hyperglycemia

High blood sugar levels
Most often from untreated DIABETES MELLITUS

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Hypoglycemia

Low blood sugar
Seen in starvation or too much insulin

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Impact of energy balance and body weight

More energy in / less out = stored calories
More energy out / less in = energy burned

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Eating disorders

Anorexia nervosa
Bulimia

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Anorexia nervosa

Self-induced starvation and unusual eating rituals

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Bulimia

Binge - purge syndrome

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Obesity

Not necessarily an eating disorder, but may be a symptom of chronic over-eating
Eating disorders usually have an underlying motion all cause
May also be a symptom of a metabolic disorder

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Vitamin disorders

Deficiencies - avitaminosis

Excess vitamins - hypervitaminosis

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Avitaminosis

Vitamin deficiency
Can lead to significant metabolic problems
Lack of vitamin C - scurvy

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Hypervitaminosis

Can be as serious as a deficiency
Toxicity
Usually seen in fat soluble vitamins

54

PKU

Phenylketonuria
Rare condition where you can't break down an amino acid
Causes retardation