A&P 3.16 urinary system Flashcards Preview

A&P 3 > A&P 3.16 urinary system > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P 3.16 urinary system Deck (27):
0

Enzymes are made of

Amino acids that are deconstructed proteins


Enzymes are the product of proteins

1

Flexor digitorum superficials


A, I, O

Origin: common flexor tendon of medial epicondyle, ulnar collateral ligament, coronoid process ulna, interosseous membrane and proximal shaft of the radius

Insertion: sides of middle phalanges of 2-5 fingers

Action: flex 2-5 fingers (MC and interphalangeal joints) and flex wrist

2

Flexor digitorum profundis

A, I, O

Origin: anterior and medial surface of the proximal 3/4 of ulna

Insertion: bases of distal phalanges, Palmer surface of 2-5 fingers

Action: flexion of 2-5 fingers (MC & distal interphalangeal joints) assists in wrist flexion

DEEPEST MUSCLE of flexors
Pronator quadratus is the deepest of all

3

Urinary system


Structures

Kidneys - 2 - organs
Ureters -2
Urinary
Bladder
Urethra

4

Kidney location

Kidneys are in the retroperitoneal cavity

Just above and below the 12th rib

5

Urinary functions

Makes urine
Filters blood
Monitors blood volume and composition (sodium/potassium balance)

6

Filters what in blood

Toxins
Ions-pH balance
Electrolyte balance

7

Kidneys
Shape

2 of them
Kidney bean
4-5 inches long, 2 inches wide, 1 inch thick
Retroperitoneal

8

Kidney internal anatomy

2 regions of kidney
Similar to adrenals:

Cortex - bark, outside portion
Medulla - inner portion

9

Nephrons

Defined

Functional unit of the kidneys
About 1 million per kidney

Renal corpuscle
Renal tubule

10

Renal corpuscle

Kidney tiny body

Blood plasma filtered here

Glomerulus (capillary network)
Glomerular capsule (bowman's capsule)

11

Glomerular capsule

Bowman's capsule

Made of epithelial tissue
Thin wall for tissue exchange

12

Renal tube

Twisty tube where filtered fluid passes through this tube

Proximal convoluted tube
Loop of Henle
Distal convoluted tube

13

Urine production

Glomerular filtration
Tubular reabsorption
Tubular secretion

14

Glomerular filtration

Glomerular filtration
blood plasma moves across the walls of the capillaries (glomerulus) into the glomerular (bowman's capsule) then into tubules

15

Tubular reabsorption

About 99% of plasma returns to blood here

16




Tubular secretion

Blood stream secretes waste products into tube for excretion

17

Dilute / concentrated urine

Normally functioning kidneys produce a large amount of dilute urine when fluid intake is high and small amount when fluid intake is low

18

Micturation

Peeing

19

Nephr

Kidney

20

Renal failure

Kidney failure
Kidneys unable to filter blood
Dialysis becomes necessary

21

Hemodialysis

Filters blood directly and returns it to the patient

Generally requires a port

22

Peritoneal dialysis

CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
Process in which glucose rich fluid is pumped into the peritoneal cavity
Osmosis causes wastes and toxins to be absorbed into the solution then it is drained

23

CAPD

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

24

Renal calculi

Kidney stones
Made of christalized mineral chunks
Small ones will flush on their own
Large ones cause blockage

25

Lithotripsy

Ultrasound

26

Gout

Excess levels of uric acid in the blood
Uric acid is not as soluble as other waste products
If not excreted by the kidney, it can be deposited in joints & tissue of the body