A&P 3.2 heart structure & blood flow Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 3.2 heart structure & blood flow Deck (29):
1

Internal obliques

A, I, O

ORIGIN: upper portion of inguinal ligament and iliac crest

Insertion: internal surface of lower 3 ribs and linea alba

Action: unilaterally- ipsilateral side-bending and rotation of the trunk

Bilaterally- flexion of trunk, compression of abdominal contents (breathing, coughing, hiccuping, bearing down)

2

Adductor brevis

A, I, O

Origin: inferior RAMUS of the pubis

Insertion: upper 1/3 of linea aspera

Action: adducts thigh, flexes thigh, medial rotation of thigh

3

Inguinal ligament

ASIS to pubis

4

Linea alba

Center line of abdominals

5

Cardiovascular system

Parts

Heart - muscular pump
Vessels - arteries, veins, capillaries
Blood

6

Cardiovascular system

Functions

Transportation, regulation and defense

Heart pumps blood through blood vessels
Blood TRANSPORTS oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away
Helps REGULATE acid/base balance, temperature, and water content of body fluids
Blood components help DEFEND against disease and mend damaged vessels

7

The heart

Size and location

Cone shaped, size of closed fist, 5X3 inches
Rests on diaphragm near midline of thoracic cavity
Between sternum and vertebral bodies anteriorly to posterior and between lungs in the mediastinum
2/3rds to the left, pointed end at apex, broad portion is the base (on top)

8

Heart coverings

Pericardium that surrounds the heart and maintains position while allowing freedom of movement

Fibrous (outside) and serous

Between layers is the pericardial space containing pericardial fluid

9

Fibrous

Tough inelastic connective tissue
Outer layer

10

Serous

Double layer with pericardial fluid

Partial layer

Visceral layer

11

Parietal layer

Lines the inside of the fibrous pericardium

12

Visceral layer

Epicardium

Adheres to the outside of the heart

13

Pericardial space

Between parietal and visceral layer containing pericardial fluid

14

Walls of the heart

3 layers

Epicardium
Myocardium
Endocardium

15

Epicardium

Outer layer, smooth, slippery, visceral layer of the serous pericardium

16

Myocardium

Bulk of heart wall
Cardiac muscle - striated, involuntary

17

Endocardium

Lining interior wall of the myocardium
smooth lining of epithelial tissue

18

Anatomy of the heart
4 chambers

4 chambers separated by the septum (extension of the heart wall)

Atria
Ventricles

19

Atria

Superior chambers of the heart
Right and left
Receiving chambers

20

Ventricles

Inferior chambers
Right and left
Walls are thicker
Right - smaller work load, pumps blood to lungs (shorter), less pressure
Left - works harder, pumps blood further against more resistance

21

Heart anatomy

Valves

Atrioventricular
Semilunar

22

Atrioventricular

AV - between atria and ventricles
Blood always moves from atria to ventricles

Examples: tricuspid (3 flaps) right; bicuspid (2 flaps) left = "mitral valve"

23

Semilunar

Allows blood from heart to arteries

Example: aortic -left; pulmonic-right

24

Mitral valve

AKA bicuspid valve

25

Circulation

3 types

Systemic
Pulmonary
Coronary

26

Systemic

Left
Circulation throughout the body except the lungs and back to the heart

27

Pulmonary

Right
Circulation of blood through the lungs

28

Coronary

Blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM

29

Circulation of blood flow through the heart

Superior/inferior vena cava & coronary sinus to
Right atrium through tricuspid valve to the
Right ventricle through the pulmonary valve to the
pulmonary artery to the
LUNGS THROUGH THE PULMONARY VEINS TO THE
LEFT ATRIUM THROUGH THE MITRIAL/BICUSPID VALVE TO THE
LEFT VENTRICLE THROUGH THE AORTIC VALVE TO THE
AORTA TO THE BODY