A&P 3.3 heart conduction and heart disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 3.3 heart conduction and heart disorders Deck (26):
1

Authorhythmic Fibers

Specialized cardiac muscle fibers that are SELF EXCITABLE (continue to beat even when removed from the body)

2

Pacemaker=SA Nodes

(Sinoatrial)=sets the rhythm- The SA node sets the rate at 100/min and is adjusted by other systems to about 75/min.

3

AV (Atrioventricular) node

AV (Atrioventricular) node if SA node went out is 40-60 bpm

4

If both nodes are damaged

other fibers 20-35 bpm, blood flow to the brain would be inadequate and you would need an artificial pacemaker

5

Conduction System

path for each cycle to process through the heart

6

SA (sinoatrial) node

R atrial wall close to superior vena cava

7

AV (atrioventricular) node

Septum between the 2 atria

8

AV bundle (bundle of His)-

the only space where the action potential can travel from atria to ventricles

9

R&L bundle branches

through the interventricular system toward apex

10

Purkinje Fibers

From apex up to the rest of ventricular myocardium

11

Pulse

traveling pressure wave from contraction of the heart

- strongest closest to heart

- can be felt in many artery, near the surface and over a firm area

12

Normal HR

-adult 70-80bpm

- children 80-100 bpm

- newborn 120-160 bpm

13

Abnormal HR

Tachycardia > 100 bpm (normal during exercise & stress)
Bradycardia > 60 bpm (normal during sleep & in conditioned athletes)

14

Cardiac Cycle

- Complete heart beat, or pumping cycle consisting of a contraction (Systole) & relaxation (Diastole) of both atria and ventricles.
- The two atria contract simultaneously, then as the two atria relax the two ventricles contract, then relax

15

Heart Disorders

Pericarditis
Coronary Artery Disease
Atherosclerosis
Hypertension
Myocardial Infarction
Congestive Heart Failure
Angina Pectoris
Aneurism
CVA

16

Pericarditis

Inflammation of the pericardium (may be caused by many different factors)

17

Coronary Artery Disease

A leading cause of death in US (many subcategories & can result from various causes, all reduced blood flow to heart)

18

Atherosclerosis

Hardening of the arteries due to lipid/cholesterol plaque (subcategory of arteriosclerosis) risk factors: smoking, poor diet, high BP

19

Hypertension

High BP

20

Myocardial Infarction

Heart attack causes tissue death (muscle of the heart/loss of blood supply causing tissue death) If enough heart muscle tissue is killed then you will die

21

Congestive Heart Failure

inability of L ventricle to pump blood effectively-not enough blood in the body - R=edema legs L=edema lungs-enlarged heart to increase blood.

22

Angina Pectoris

Severe chest pain, occurs when myocardial is deprived of enough O2

23

Aneurism

when a section of an artery becomes abnormally widened due to weakening of wall

24

CVA

Cerebrovascular accident Ischemia of the brain tissue due to either an embolism or ruptured aneurism (cardiovascular rather than heart disease)

25

Adductor Magnus

O: Inferior Ramus of Pubis
Ischium to Ischial Tuberosity
I: Linea Aspera of femur
A: Adduction & medial rotation of thigh
Anterior: Flexion of thigh
Posterior: Extension of thigh

26

Transverse Abdominus

O: Upper portion of inguinal ligament
Iliac crest
thoracolumbar aponeurosis
lower 6 ribs & costal cartilage
I: linea alba
A: compress the abdominal contents (in breathing, coughing, hiccuping, bearing down to defecate)