A&P 3.6 Lymphatic vessels & disorders Flashcards Preview

A&P 3 > A&P 3.6 Lymphatic vessels & disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P 3.6 Lymphatic vessels & disorders Deck (38):
1

Occipitofrontalis


A, I , O

Superior attachment: galea aponeurotica

Inferior attachment: frontalis - skin over eyebrows
Occipitalis- superior nuchal line of the occiput

Action - frontalis - raises eyebrows and wrinkles forehead
Occipitalis - anchors and retracts the galea posteriorly

2

Galea aponeurotica

Sheet like tissue over top of skull

Connects frontalis to occipitalis

3

Hypothenar muscles

3

Abductor digiti minimi - superficial
Flexor digiti minimi brevis - medial
Opponens digiti minimi - deep

4

Hypothernar eminence

Ulnar side of the palm
Formed by three muscles
Opposite side of the thenar

5

Abductor digiti minimi

A, I, o

Action - abducts the little finger (5th finger) at the MP joint, assists in opposition of the 5th finger towards the thumb
Proximal attachment -Pisiform, hamate and flexor retinaculum
Insertion - base of proximal phalange of 5th finger

6

Flexor digiti minimi brevis

A, I, o

Action - Flexes small short finger (5th finger) at the MP joint, assists in opposition of the 5th finger toward the joint
Proximal attachment -Pisiform, hamate and flexor retinaculum
Insertion - base of proximal phalange of 5th finger

7

Opponens digiti minimi

Action - Opposes 5th finger at the CM joint

Proximal attachment -Pisiform, hamate and flexor retinaculum

Insertion - shaft of the 5th metacarpal

8

All three have same proximal attachment

Pisiform, hamate and flexor retinaculum

2 most anteromedial metacarpals

9

Lymphatic system functions

Interact with cardiovascular system and digestive system

1 - immune response made of lymphocytes - T&B cells
2 - drain excess interstitial fluid
3 - transports lipids and lipid soluble vitamins ( A, D, E, K) from GI system to blood

10

Leukocytes

A type of lymphocyte and are created in red bone marrow in epiphysis in adults

11

Components

4

Lymph vessels
Lymph nodes
Fluid - lymph
Lymphatic structures

12

Lymph vessels

Capillaries to vessels to ducts

2 ducts- right and left

Right is the lymphatic duct
Left is the thoracic duct

13

Lymph nodes

Encapsulated tissue along the lymph vessels

Lymph NODULES are not encapsulated

14

Fluid

Lymph

15

Lymphatic structures

Primary and secondary structures

16

Lymphatic system is a one way system due to

Overlapping cell walls

Regulated by pressure gradients

17

Lymph flow

Plasma leaves capillaries and becomes extracellular fluid (interstitial), most goes back two capillaries and becomes plasma again. Remaining fluid not used by cells goes into a lymphatic capillary and becomes lymph where it is eventually reintroduced back to the cardiovascular system.

18

Lymph flow sequence

Blood capillaries - plasma
Interstitial space - interstitial fluid
Lymphatic capillaries - 10% - lymph
Lymphatic vessels and nodes - lymph
Lymphatic ducts - lymph
Subclavian veins - plasma

19

Organs versus tissues in the lymphatic system

An organ in the lymphatic system must be encapsulated or it is a tissue

20

Lymphatic organs and tissue

Primary 2

Red bone marrow
Thymus gland

WHERE LYMPHOCYTES ARE MADE AND GROW TO MATURITY

21

Red bone marrow

Primary lymphatic structure
White blood cells created here including
- lymphocytes - B cells ready for action
- T cells - go through thymus gland

BONE MARROW IS AN ORGAN

RED BONE MARROW IN FLAT BONES AND EPSYSIS in long bones

22

Thymus gland

Primary lymphatic structure
Located between the sternum and the aorta
Where immature T cells become mature T cells (only 2% survive)
Job of T cells is to be appropriately aggressive
Large in infants and become small as adult (atrophies with age)

23

Secondary lymphatic organs and tissues

3

Lymph nodes
Tonsils
Spleen

WHERE MOST IMMUNE RESPONSES OCCUR

24

Lymph nodes

FILTERS LYMPH
Located along lymphatic vessels
Encapsulated - surrounded by dense connective tissue)
Inside a network of reticular fibers - weblike with T & B cells

LYMPH NODES ARE AN ORGAN

25

Tonsils

Not encapsulated tissue
5 different tonsils
Also known as nodules
NOT AN ORGAN
2 - palantine
2 - pharyngeal
1 - lingual

26

Palantine tonsil

2 of them
Located on either side of the throat
Usually removed in a tonsillectomy

27

Pharyngeal tonsils

Adenoids
Near the posterior opening of the nasal cavity

28

Lingual tonsils

Single
Near base of the tongue

29

Afferent versus efferent lymphatic vessels

Afferent in to lymph node
Efferent out of the lymph node

30

Secondary lymphatic tissues/ organs

Spleen

Largest mass of lymphatic tissue
Located in the left upper quadrant between stomach and diaphragm
Dense connective tissue, most often injured in abdominal trauma
Two types of tissue: WHITE AND RED PULP/TISSUE

31

Spleen
White pulp

Lymphatic tissue
Contains lymphocytes (T&B cells) and MACROPHAGES

32

Macrophages

Large eaters
White blood cells that eat antigens

33

Red pulp

Venous sinuses (direct contact with blood)
Removal of worn out blood cells
Storage of blood cells (platelets) - 1/3 of bodies supply
Fetal red blood cell production
Stores iron (along with bone marrow and liver)

34

Disorders of the lymphatic system

4

Lymphedema
Lymphangitis
Lymphoma
Tonsillitis

35

Lympodema

Blockage of lymph flow causing edema (pitting edema)

Massage do not touch pitting edema
Doctor's note for non pitting edema

36

Lymphangitis

Inflammation of lymph vessels, painful red streaking
Do not massage if you have skin trouble (hang nails) it's a location where bacteria can get in and cause the therapist dangerous infection

37

Lymphoma

Tumor of the lymph nodes
2 categories
Hodgkins and non-hodgkins

38

Tonsillitis

Acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils

CONTRAINDICATED WHEN ACUTE FOR MASSAGE