A&P 3.8 Blood/Platelets Flashcards Preview

A&P 3 > A&P 3.8 Blood/Platelets > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P 3.8 Blood/Platelets Deck (34):
1

Transversospinalis

Multifidi
Rotatores

Deep to the erector spinalis muscles
Transverse to spinous
Rotatores are the deepest

2

Multifidi

Attachment: sacrum and transverse process of the lumbar through cervical vertebrae

Superior attachment: spinous process of lumbar vertebrae through second cervical vertebrae - span 2-4 vertebrae

Action: unilaterally - rotate vertebral column to opposite side
Bilaterally - extend vertebral column

3

Rotatores

Attachment : transverse processes of the lumbar through cervical vertebrae

Superior attachment: spinous process of lumbar vertebrae through second cervical vertebrae - span 1-2 vertebrae

Action: unilaterally - rotate vertebral column to opposite side
Bilaterally - extend vertebral column

4

Blood whole

Fluid connective tissue
55% plasma - matrix and fibers present as needed
45% formed elements: RBC, WBC, PLATELETS

5

Functions of blood

Transportation- nutrients and wastes
Regulation - homeostasis
Protection - clotting, fight infection

6

Hemopoiesis

Process of creating formed elements
Occurs in blood marrow
MAMA cell of all formed elements is pluripotent stem cell

7

Formed elements

Red blood cells - no nucleus
White blood cells - have nucleus
Platelets - cell fragments

8

Pluripotent

Stem cell
Base for all formed elements in blood

9

Red blood cells

Erythrocytes
Live about 120 days
Contain hemoglobin - BINDS TO OXYGEN
Main job is to carry oxygen
STARTS AS A RETICULOCYTE ( before nucleus is ejected)

10

RETICULOCYTE

Red blood cell before it ejects its nucleus

Ejects nucleus so it can carry more oxygen

11

Biconcave

Shape of red blood cell when it loses it's nucleus

Shape allows it to squeeze through tiny capillaries and carry more oxygen

12

Polycythemia

.Too many red blood cells
Blood is thick and cannot flow well

13

Platelets

Thrombocytes
Cell fragments
NO NUCLEUS
From MEGAKAROCYTE
Normal value is 250,000 per mm of blood
Live 5-9 days

14

MEGAKAROCYTE

Gets really large
Explodes into 2000-3000 fragments
Fragments are platelets

15

Platelets

Physical properties

Agglutination
Adhesiveness
Aggregation

16

Agglutination

Adhere and form clumps

17

Adhesiveness

ability to stick to damaged tissue

18

Aggregation

Gather together

19

Platelets

Function

To form platelet plugs in broken blood vessels

20

Hemostasis

BLOOD STILLNESS

A sequence of responses that stop bleeding

21

Hemostasis
Sequence

Vascular spasm
Platelet plug formation
Clotting (coagulation)

22

Vascular spasm

Contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in blood vessel wall to reduce the size of the tear in the vessel

23

Platelet plug formation

Platelets notice the roughness in the EPITHELIAL tissue lining of the blood vessel (endothelium) they slow down, get sticky and send out projections to fill the gap
They also send out a chemical that triggers the formation of fibrous protein threads called fibrin

24

Clotting

Coagulation
Fibrin threads interweave in platelet plug and close the gap

25

Conditions that oppose clotting

Anticoagulants

26

Anticoagulants

Blood thinners
Heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin
Delay or suppress (or prevent) blood clotting

27

Conditions that hasten clotting

Atherosclerosis

28

Antherosclerosis

May hasten clotting
The thickness of the blood and or narrowing of the vessels lumen may slow blood flow and clot blood when it is not necessary

29

Clotting pathologies

Thrombus
Embolus
Hemophilia

30

Thrombus

Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel
Usually a vein

31

Embolus

Blood clot that breaks off and floats through the bloodstream

32

Embolism

Embolus lodged in a smaller vessel (blocks flow to vital organ)

VENOUS - goes to lungs (pulmonary embolism)

ARTERIAL - goes to coronary vessel - can cause heart attack, stroke, TIA, in the kidneys can lead to a renal infarction

33

Hemophilia

Deficiency of clotting
Most often due to lack of clotting factor 8 (VIII)

34

Anemia

Shortage of red blood cells, hemoglobin or both
Pallor, shortness of breath, fatigue, poor resistance to cold
Idiopathic anemia or nutritional deficiency anemia are ok to massage
Bone marrow suppression (cancer), chronic disease/inflammation, or premature red blood cells destruction -- rigorous massage may be contraindicated
Energy work more appropriate