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cathy's COMPS/Praxis > A & P > Flashcards

Flashcards in A & P Deck (35):
1

how many vertebrae are in spinal column?

32-33

2

cervical vertebrae

C1-C7

3

thoracic vertebrae

T1-T12

4

lumbar vertebrae

L1-L5

5

sacral vertebrae

S1-S5

6

coccygeal vertebrae

3-4 (fused and called coccyx)

7

trachea: tube formed by approximately __ rings of _____

20 rings of cartilage

8

3 biological functions of larynx

close trachea so food/substances don't enter lungs
close VF's to build pressure
cough reflex

9

myoelastic-aerodynamic theory

subglottal air pressure builds up, eventually pushes folds apart, and also causes vibration;
then pressure eventually decreases and folds are pulled back together

10

bernoulli effect

increased speed of air passing between VF's which sucks folds together

11

brainstem is made up of what?

midbrain, pons, medulla

12

reticular activating system executes ______. it is the primary mechanism of ______

motor activity;
attention and consciousness

13

what is AKA the "little brain"? and what does it do?

cerebellum, which regulates balance, posture, fine movements (including speech!)

14

re: the cerebrum, what is a ridge in the cortex?

gyrus

15

re: the cerebrum, what is a shallow valley in the cortex?

sulcus

16

re: the cerebrum, what is a deeper valley?

fissure

17

what is primary function of the pyramidal system?

voluntary muscle movement

18

corticobulbar tract controls what?

voluntary movements of speech muscles

19

corticobulbar (and corticospinal) tract(s) are divided into what?

lower motor neurons and upper motor neurons

20

LMNs are located where?

spinal and cranial nerves

21

UMNs are located where?

central nervous system

22

what is primary function of the extrapyramidal system?

fine motor movements (speech!)

23

what lobe contains primary motor cortex (motor strip)?

frontal

24

what controls muscle movements through pyramidal system?

primary motor cortex (motor strip)

25

what lobe contains sensory cortex (sensory strip)?

parietal

26

what lobe contains primary visual cortex?

occipital

27

what lobe contains primary auditory cortex?

temporal

28

what lobe deals with pressure, pain, temperature, and touch?

parietal

29

framework of respiration

trachea

lungs

bronchi

sternum

spinal column

rib cage

30

muscles of respiration

diaphragm

intercostals (internal and external)

accessory muscles of neck

31

internal intercostal muscles pull ribs ____ for _____ _________

down

forced exhalation

32

external intercostals do what to ribs?

raise ribs up or out for inhalation

33

2 muscles of neck

traps and sternocleidomastoid

34

pathway of respiration starting with mouth/nose

mouth/nose

pharynx

VF's- abducted

trachea

bronchi

bronchioles

alveolar ducts

35

larynx is made up of 1 bone and 9 cartilages. What are they?

epiglottis

cricoid

thyroid

arytenoids (2)

corniculates (2)

cuneiforms (2)