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Flashcards in A&P Deck (109):
1

Deep (common) peroneal nerve innervates:

Front & Lateral Lower Leg

2

Superficial Peroneal nerve innervates:

Fibualris longus & Brevis (and skin)

3

THe vitamin that aids in Ca+ absorption?

Vitamin D

4

Vitamin that AIDS in Iron absorption?

Vitamin C

5

Vitamin deficiency associated with Anemia?

Vitamin B12

6

What part is the mm structure is Ca+ stored?

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

7

What are the characteristics of skeletal muscles?

Striated, Voluntary

8

Sympathetic trunk ganglion (paravertebral gg) are located:

Bilaterally from base of skull to coccyx innervating organs
(Head, neck, shoulders, and heart)

9

THe parasympathetic Ganglion in the cervical spine:

Synapse with terminal gg that are located within the walls of the visceral organs

10

Pascinian Corpuscles:

FAST
Encapsulated
Pressure + vibration

11

Meissner Corpuscle

Fast
Touch receptors
Encapsulated
In dermal papillae of hairless skin
Fine touch, pressure, slow vibration

12

Hair Root Plexus

FAST
Free nerve endings wrapped around hair follicles
Detects crude touch & mvmt in skin

13

Merkel Discs
Type 1

Slow
Free nerve ending found in stratum basal
Fine touch + pressure

14

Riffing Corpuscle
Type 2

Slow
In Deep Dermis
MC in hands and feet but also in ligaments and tendons
Crude touch, stretching of skin, mvmt of digits

15

Free Nerve endings sense:

Pain, itch, tickle, temp

16

What are the 3 levels of the bodies protection?

1 - skin

2 - immune response

3 - medical intervention

17

What mms are innervates by the Trigeminal nerve?
CN V

Digastric mms

18

Thyroid hormone:

Regulates metabolic rate

19

What is true about hormones?

They are lipid base structures (Eicosanoids)

20

Where does dynamic equilibrium occur?

Semicircular canal (ear)

21

What wraps around muscle?

Epimysium

22

What does strenuous exercise cause?

Cell damage

23

Please the structure of the brain superior to inferior:

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla

24

What is true about pregnancy?

Tidal volume increases 30 %

25

What prevents blood from coming back to the Pulmonary Trunk?

Pulmonary Semi Lunar Valve

26

What affects Venous return?

- Musculoskeletal pump
- BP
- Vena Cava Compression
- Respiratory Pump

27

A Red Blood Cell Does Not Use the Oxygen it carries because:

They have no Nucleus & no Mitchondria

Generate ATP ANAEROBILCALLY

28

Where does the Krebs Cylcle take place?

Mitochondrial matrix

29

What nerves innervate the tongue for speech and swallowing?

Hypoglossal
CN XII

30

What proteins carries O2 and CO2 in the mm cell?

Hemoglobin

31

Function of Acetylcholinesterase at Synaptic cleft:

To break down Acetylcholine (ACh)
Terminate neuroransmisson
Reset Synapse

32

What's the function of Goblets cells in the body?

Secretion of Mucins (main component of mucus)

33

Which type of tissue dosen't have epithelium?

Muscle
Teeth
Bone

34

What's the function of Synovial Fluid?

Reduction of friction between Articular Cartilage

35

Function of Bone Tissue:

Osteoclasts - Bone Resorption (deconstruct bone)
Osteoblasts - Bone formation
Osteocytes - Mechanoreceptors & orchestrate bone remodelling

36

Erythema:

Redness of skin or mucous membranes caused by Hyperemia in superficial capillaries

37

What type of cell produces Antibodies?

"B" lymphocytes

38

A person with black skin has more:

Melanin

39

Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia (paravertebral ganglia):

Fight or Flight

Long chains on either side of spinal cord; Lat. and Vent

40

General Stress Adaptation is regulated by what?

Activated by Hypothalamus

Decreased by Parasympathetic branch of ANS

41

WHat's the most common secondary effect of Hyperthyroidism?

"Grave's Disease" causes hyperthyroidism
Fatigue/ mm weakness
Hand tremors
Mood swings
Nervousness

42

What causes Goiter?

Iodine deficiency
Thyroid
Can be used by Grave's Disease also

43

What two important hormones are produced by the kidneys?

Erythropoietin - acts on bone marrow to produce red blood cells
(Prox convoluted tubule & peritubular capillary)

Calcitriol - Regulates Ca+ in combo with PTH to increase digestion of Ca+ from GI tract into blood

44

What causes S1, AV valves closing?

S1 caused by closing of the Mitral + Tricupid Valves at start of Systole

45

Where does the bronchial tree begin?

Trachea - divides into 2 tubes @ Hilum into Main Bronchi

46

Causes of Pneumoconiosis:

"Black Lung"
Miner dust, Asbestos, Silica, coal dust

47

Cause of Primary Cirrhosis:

Autoimmune Disease
Chronic Inflam that damages bile ducts
Leads to build up of toxic wastes in liver

48

Damage to the Temporal Lobe:

1 - Disturbance to Auditory sensation
2- Disturbance of Visual Perception
3- Impaired orientation/impaired categorization of verbal material
4 -Impaired long term memory
5 -Disturbed language comprehension

49

Intersegmental Flexor reflex:

Synapses in more than one segment of spinal cord

Biceps FLX reflex --> sensory --> interneuron --> motor (hot stove!)

50

What is the consequence of Cystic Fibrosis?

Decreases body's ability to transfer H2O and NaCl- to and from cells that produce sweat, mucus, digestive enzymes
=makes them thick and sticky
=clogs up organs, lungs, pancreas, liver + gall bladder +intestines :(

51

Lupus

Marked by Inflam of skin
Butterfly rash on face
Autoimmune
Swelling of joints, poor posture, RA

52

What's the role of Progesterone during pregnancy?

Maintains endometrium & stimulates glands to secrete nutrients to nourish embryo
Stimulates growth of breast tissue/milk production hormones

53

What is stroke Volume?

= Amoutn of blood ejected by Left Ventricle in one contraction

54

Eccrine Glads:

Sweat Glands

Found in virtually all skin

55

Apocrine Glands:

Secretory product gather at free end of cell and are "pinched off" along with some of the cytoplasm = secretion

Ex "mammal glands secreting breaths milk"

56

Why aren't we aware of blood pressure changes?

BP. Is controlled by ANS via Glossopharyngeal Nerve and Vagus N via baroreceptors around corridor arteries

57

Lymphatic system drains into external jugular vein?

Posterolateral nodes of superficial cervical lymph nodes
--> collect lymph from superficial surface of neck

58

What tripper Testes to produce Testosterone?

Hypothalamus Signals --> Ant Pituitary releases --> LH-->Testes --> Testosterone

59

Development of the Brain 3 - 4 weeks in Embryo

Prosencephalon
Mesencephalon
Rhombocephalon

60

Development of Brain 5 weeks in embryo

Tele -- Cerebrum---> Lat vent
Pro 3rd vent
Hypo
Epi

Mesen - midbrain ----> Aqueduct

Pons
Meten upper 4th vent
Rhomben lower 4th vent

61

Major part of the brain

Brain stem
Cerebellum
Diencephalon
Hypothalamus
Cerebrum

62

Brain stem is a continuation of the spinal cord and consists of:

Medulla oblungata
Pons (bridges) and midbrain

63

Cerebellum:

2nd largest part of the brain

64

Diencephalon

Gives rise to thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus

65

Cerebrum

Largest part of the brain

66

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

Clear fluid circulates through ventricals of the central canal
Subarachnoid space
Absorbs shock/ protects brain
Transepts nutrients/waste from blood + nervous tissue
CSF carries chemicals from blood to Neuron

67

Lateral ventricals

Cerebral hemispheres

68

Third ventricales

Diencephalon narrow cavity Alon midline
Sup to hypothalamus +
In btw R & L Halves of thalamus

69

Central aquaduct:

Midbrain

70

Fourth ventrical

Brain stem and cerebellum (base)

71

Formation and CSF in ventricales:

choroid plexus network of capillaries in vent walls
Vent are lined with Ependymal cells
Plasma is drawn from choroid plea through these cells into vent. To produce CSF

72

Common site for decussation of ascending + descending tracts

Medulla Oblongata

73

Center of Medulla Oblongata

Houses 5 pairs of cranial nerves 7-12

74

The Pons (bridge)

Contains nuclei
Sensory + motor tracts
Vestibular nuclei-equilibrium
Pneumotaxic + apes tic areas in the respitory center which control breathing
Responsible for 2* control of respiration

75

The Midbrain contains

-Ant paired bundles called pedunacles
-Axons that conducts nerve impulses from motor area on cerebral cortex --> spinal cord, pons, & medulla
-Sup follicular are part of the auditory pathway & exhibit the startle reflex
-Contains CN 3-4

76

The Midbrain (mesencephalon)

Extends from the pons to the Diencephalon
Part of the ventrical found here - cerebral aquaduct

77

Cerebellum

- 2nd largest part of brain
- balance, flocculonodular lobe on inf side contributes to equilibrium + balance
-ant + post lobes control subconscious aspects of skeletal mvmt

78

Diencephalon

Thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus

79

The Thalamus

- Intermediate mass containing several nuclei
- major relay station for most sensory impulses

80

Hypothalamus

Inf to thalamus
- consists of mammillary body, Median eminence, infundibulum, + a number of nuclei

81

Functions of the Hypothalamus

Controls ANS
-produces hormones
-regs emotional/behavioural patterns
-eating, drinking, body temp, circadian rythms
-structural & functional relationship btw hypothalamus & pituitary

82

Epithalamus

Small region sup to thalamus that consists of Pineal gland
Secretes Melatonin (sleep)

83

The Cerebrum

"Seat of intelligence"
Houses Pre-Central Gyrus (primary motor area)
Post-central Gyrus (primary somatosensory area)

84

Gyri

Folds of the brain

85

Sulci

Shallow grooves

86

How many lobes in the cerebellum?

4

87

Lobes of the Cerebrum:

Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital

88

Central Sulcus

Separates frontal and parietal lobes

89

Basal Ganglia

3 nuclei deep within each cerebral hemisphere make up basal gg
-globes pallidus
- Putamen
- caudate nucleus

90

Putamen

Anticipates mvmt

91

Caudate nucleus

Prior to eye mvmt

92

The Limbic System

- Ring of structure on the inner border of the cerebrum & floor of Diencephalon
- includes cingulate Gyrus, hippocampus, dent ate Gyrus, amygdala, mammillary bodies, thalamus, olfactory bulb

93

Emotional Brain

Governs emotional aspects of behaviour

94

Primary somatosensory area

Postcentral Gyrus

95

Primary Visual Area

Occipital Lobe

96

Primary Auditory Area

Temporal Lobe

97

Primary Olfactory Area

Temporal Lobe

98

Primary Gustatory

Base of the Postcentral gyrus

99

Function a organization of the Cerebral Cortex (motor areas)

Primary motor area is Postcentral Gyrus

100

Broca's Speech Area

Left Cerebral hemisphere

101

Functional organization of the cerebral cortex (association areas)

Somatosensory assoc
Visual assoc area
Auditory "
Wernicke's "
Prefrontal cortex
Hemispheric lateralization
Brain waves

102

Somatosensory Association Area

Post to Primary Somatosensory area

103

Visual Assoc Area

Occipital lobe

104

Primary Gustatory

Base of the Postcentral gyrus

105

Function a organization of the Cerebral Cortex (motor areas)

Primary motor area is Postcentral Gyrus

106

Broca's Speech Area

Left Cerebral hemisphere

107

Functional organization of the cerebral cortex (association areas)

Somatosensory assoc
Visual assoc area
Auditory "
Wernicke's "
Prefrontal cortex
Hemispheric lateralization
Brain waves

108

Somatosensory Association Area

Post to Primary Somatosensory area

109

Visual Assoc Area

Occipital lobe