Flashcards in A&P Chapter 22 Respiratory System Deck (58):
What are the functions of the Respiratory System?
1. Ventilation: MOVEMENT of air to and from site of gas exchange.
2. Gas Exchange: Movement of specific gasses such as O2 and CO2 between AIR and BLOOD (in a lung) or between BLOOD and the CELLS of other tissues.
3. Gas Transport: Movement of O2 (in blood) away from the lungs and CO2 (also in blood) back towards the lungs.
What are the organs of the Respiratory system?
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi and Lungs.
The Trachea and Lungs develop from what in the embryo?
The Layrngotracheal Bud, it must develop anteriorly to the esophagus.
What are the roles of the Nasal Cavity? What allows it to do these jobs?
It removes dust and other debris, warms inhaled air and humidifies inhaled air.
The Nasopharynx is lined with a PSUEDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR Epithelium which contains large numbers of GOBLET Cells. The goblet cells produce mucous which traps the debris and helps humidify the air.
What separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity?
What marks the inferior border of the Nasopharynx?
The Uvula which is the extension of the soft palate.
What three structures create turbulence in the nasal cavity contributing to the functions of the nasal cavity?
The Nasal Conchae. There is a Superior, Middle and Inferior Nasal Conchae.
What marks the superior border of the OROPHARYNX? What marks the inferior border?
The Uvula marks the superior border and the Epiglottis marks the inferior border.
What are the three regions that together make up the Pharynx?
The Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and Laryngopharynx.
What types of epithelia line the Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx?
Both Pseudostratified Columnar and Stratified Squamous.
What marks the superior border of the Laryngopharynx?
What are the functions of the Larynx?
Keeps the airway open even with negative pressure.
It keeps food and liquids from entering the trachea.
It provides for vocalization.
How many cartilages form the Larynx? What are they?
3 Large Unpaired: The Epiglottis, Thyroid and Cricoid Cartilages.
6 Smaller Paired: (Starting Inferior) The Arytenoid, Corniculate and the Cuneiform.
Movement of what pair of cartilages allows for the change in pitch from the vocal cords?
The Arytenoid Cartilages
Describe the Vocal Cords
They are strands of DENSE REGULAR connective tissue running anteriorly from the Arytenoid Cartilages to the Thyroid Cartilage.
How many muscles are involved with moved the Arytenoid cartilages and thus the vocal cords?
13 muscles, they rotate, move and tilt the cartilages and vocal cords.
What cranial nerve innervates the muscles of the larynx and thus the muscles of vocalization?
The Vagus Nerve (Cranial Nerve X)
What is the GLOTTIS?
The Opening between the vocal cords.
Describe the Trachea:
It is a tube made of C Shaped Cartilages that runs from the Cricoid Cartilage of the Larynx to the Carina where the Trachea branches into the two Primary Bronchi.
It is lined with a PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM that is CILIATED.
Many Mucous glands line the trachea and the cilia sweep the mucous to the top of the trachea where it accumulates until you cough or clear your throat to get rid of it.
What type of epithelia lines the Trachea?
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Ciliated
Where does the upper airway stop and the lower airway begin?
What is the Hilum?
The entry point in EACH lung where the Primary Bronchi, Pulmonary Artery, Pulmonary Vein and Nerves enter and leave the lung.
MANY LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES and LYMPHATIC VESSELS enter and exit the lungs through the Hilum as well.
What is the Pleura?
A double layered sac that surrounds the lungs. It is filled with a phospholipid liquid much like the pericardial cavity of the serous pericardium of the heart.
What are the layers of the Pleura?
The Visceral Layer which is attached to the lungs directly and the Parietal Layer which is attached to the structures of the thorax such as the intercostal muscles, ribs, and diaphragm.
The space between the Visceral and Parietal layers is the Pleural Cavity. It is filled with a phospholipid like the Pericardial Cavity of the Serious Pericardium of the heart.
What is the space between the Visceral and Parietal layers of the Pleura?
The Pleural Cavity, it is filled with a phospholipid which helps eliminate friction.
What is Pleurisy?
A condition where the Visceral and Parietal Layers RUB against each other causing pain.
What are the lobes and fissure (or fissures) of the RIGHT LUNG called?
Starting at the most superior working inferiorly.
The Superior Lobe, The Horizontal Fissure, The Middle Lobe, The Oblique Fissure and the Inferior Lobe.
What are the lobes and fissure (or fissures) of the LEFT LUNG called?
Starting at the most superior working inferiorly.
The Superior Lobe, The Oblique Fissure and the Inferior Lobe.
Name the Bronchiole tree starting with the Trachea working smaller.
Trachea, Primary Bronchi, Secondary Bronchi, Tertiary Bronchi, (Smaller Branches), (Bronchioles), Terminal Bronchioles, Respiratory Bronchioles, Alveolar Ducts and Alveoli.
What are Bronchopulmonary Segments?
10 different areas in EACH Lung (20 total between both lungs). Each segment has it's own Tertiary Bronchus and it's own branch of the pulmonary artery/vein.
Describe the CONDUCTING ZONE. What levels of the Bronchiole Tree make up the Conducting Zone?
The Conducting Zone is the area found in the Bronchiole Tree where NO GAS EXCHANGE OCCURS just ventilation.
The Trachea, Primary Bronchi, Secondary Bronchi, Tertiary Bronchi, (Smaller Branches), (bronchioles) and Terminal Bronchioles make up the CONDUCTING ZONE.
Describe the RESPIRATORY ZONE. What levels of the Bronchiole Tree make up the conducting zone?
The Respiratory Zone is the area found in the bronchiole tree where GAS EXCHANGE OCCURS.
The Respiratory Bronchioles, Alveolar Ducts and Alveoli make up the Respiratory Zone.
They are the Microscopic Air Sacs which are 200-400 um in diameter.
The alveolar wall is made of TYPE 1 ALVEOLAR cells which is a SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIA.
Within the Alveoli are TYPE 2 ALVEOLAR cells which secrete SURFACTANT which is a phospholipid that prevents the alveoli from collapsing.
Also within the Alveoli are DUST CELLS.
What are DUST CELLS?
They are Macrophages that live in the Alveoli. They are a Non-Specific First Line Defense in this role acting to eat random items that enter the alveoli.
What is the Alveolar wall made of?
A Simple Squamous Epithelia, these are the TYPE 1 Alveolar Cells.
What is the RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE?
The VERY thin wall between the Simple Squamous Epithelia of the Alveolar wall and the Simple Squamous Epithelia of the Endothelium that lines the capillaries. The basement membranes of each layer of epithelia FUSE together forming the RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE. This allows the diffusion of gasses across the membrane without Air ever contacting blood. Remember AIR and BLOOD NEVER MIX.
TYPE 1 ALVEOLAR CELL-->Basement Membranes Fused is the Respiratory Membrane.
What is the only thing that moves air into and out of the lungs?
A Change In Pressure. It will move from an area of High Pressure to an Area of Low Pressure.
When Humans INHALE what happens to the thoracic cavity and thus the PRESSURE? What results?
When we inhale the Thoracic cavity gets larger, the diaphragm pushes down and the ribs expand. This larger space LOWERS the Pressure which ultimately creates a negative pressure lowering it relative to atmospheric pressure. When that happens and the pressure inside the lungs becomes LESS than the atmospheric pressure outside air RUSHES INSIDE the lungs until the pressures equal out. You just inhaled.
When Humans EXHALE what happens to the thoracic cavity and thus the PRESSURE? What results?
During EXHALATION the Diaphragm rises, the ribs contract and the thoracic cavity gets smaller. The smaller space results in a HIGHER PRESSURE inside the cavity and thus the lungs. Since air moves from an area of higher pressure to lower pressure it will leave the lungs and we EXHALE.
What is standard ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE measured in? What is the standard atmospheric pressure?
It is measured in mm Hg or millimeters of Mercury which is the ability of something to move Mercury up a tube. Normal atmospheric pressure is Approx. 760 mmHg.
What is INTRAPULMONARY Pressure?
The pressure of air in the alveoli.
What is INTRAPLEURAL Pressure?
The Pressure of air in the Pleural Cavity.
What is TRANSPULMONARY Pressure?
The difference between Intrapleural and Intrapulmonary pressures is the TRANSPULMONARY pressure.
Intrapleural pressure stays lower than Intrapulmonary Pressure, YOU WILL ALWAYS HAVE A TRANSPULMONARY PRESSURE. (Provided your healthy...and don't get a hole in your lung...)
What is a Pneumothorax?
When air enters the Pleural Cavity.
What is a Hemothorax?
When blood enters the Pleural Cavity.
What is Atelectasis?
A collapsed lung.
If Atmospheric Pressure is 760mmHG and Intrapulmonary Pressure is 757mmHG and the Intrapleural Pressure is 754mmHG what is the TRANSPULMONARY pressure? What is happening to the lungs?
The Transpulmonary Pressure is 3mmHG and the lungs are filling up, this is Inspiration.
If Atmospheric Pressure is 760mmHG and Intrapulmonary Pressure is 763mmHG and the Intrapleural Pressure is 756mmHG what is the TRANSPULMONARY pressure? What is happening to the lungs?
The Transpulmonary Pressure is 7mmHG and the lungs are deflating, this is Expiration.
Define Tidal Volume
The volume of air which moves in and out of the lungs in a NORMAL breath. This is typically 400-500ml.
Define Expiratory Reserve Volume
The volume of air BEYOND tidal volume that can be FORCIBLY expired. Normally ~1,200ml
Define Inspiratory Reserve Volume
The volume of air BEYOND tidal volume that can be FORCIBLY inhaled. Normally ~3,000ml
Define Residual Volume
The volume of air WHICH REMAINS in the lungs after forcible expiration. Normally ~1,200ml.
Define Vital Capacity
The SUM of Tidal, Inspiratory Reserve and Expiratory Reserve volume.
Define Total Lung Capacity
The SUM of Tidal, Inspiratory Reserve, Expiratory Reserve, and Residual Volume. Normally ~6,000ml
Tidal volume, expiratory reserve, inspiratory reserve, vital capacity and Total lung capacities are all functions of?
The RESPIRATORY ZONE. ONLY THE AIR IN THE ALVEOLI!
NOT THE CONDUCTING ZONE.
What is ANATOMICAL DEAD SPACE?
All of the air that remains in the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. This air is not reaching alveoli and thus it is NOT available for gas exchange. It is ~150ml.
What is DALTON's Law?
Each individual gas in air contributes to the total air pressure in proportion to its concentration. Each individual gas is said to have a PARTIAL PRESSURE in proportion to it's concentration in the air.
Therefore if O2 makes up 30% of air and if the air pressure is 760mmHg then the partial pressure of O2 in the air is .3 X 760= 228mmHg.