Flashcards in A&P Chapter 25 Nutrition Deck (38):
What are the two types of Metabolism?
Catabolism and Anabolism
The BREAKING of larger molecules into smaller molecules.
IE. Proteins into Amino Acids
Starch into Glucose Etc.
This process occurs both within the Digestive System AND inside individual cells.
The BUILDING of smaller molecules into larger ones.
IE. Glucose into Glycogen
Fatty Acids+Glycerol into Triglycerides
THIS CAN ONLY OCCUR INSIDE CELLS.
How many kilocalories does the human body consume per day?
Typically 2-5,000 Kilocalories/day.
How many calories are there in a Kilocalorie?
What is the definition of a calorie?
Its a measurement of energy, specifically the amount of heat necessary to increase the temperature of ONE GRAM of water by ONE DEGREE CENTIGRADE.
How many kcals does it tale to heat 50kg of water from freezing to boiling?
What are the major Monosaccharides?
Glucose, Fructose and Glactose
What are the primary sources of fuel molecules in your diet?
Monosaccharides (mainly glucose) which breakdown from Polysaccharides (mainly starch).
Fatty Acids which breakdown from Triglycerides.
It is also possible to use AMINO ACIDS which breakdown from proteins but doing so releases NH2 which picks up an extra H becoming NH3 (Ammonia) which then becomes NH4 which is Ammonium and is very toxic.
Why aren't Amino Acids good sources of energy?
Because using proteins to get Amino Acids releases NH2 which will pick up an extra Hydrogen atom making NH3 which is Ammonia which will pick up another Hydrogen becoming Ammonium which is highly toxic.
What happens if you consume more fuel molecules than you can use?
The excess will be stored in a variety of cells.
Diglycerides and Triglycerides will be created and stored in Adipocytes.
Glycogen will be created from Glucose molecules and stored in the Liver and in Skeletal muscle cells (myocytes)
One gram of Fatty Acids will yield how many kcals of energy? What about one gram of Monosaccharides? Amino Acids?
Fatty Acids = 9kcals/gram
Monosaccharides = 4kcal/gram
Amino Acids = 4kcal/gram
What does the complete catabolism of any type of fuel molecule result in?
What are the different parts of ATP?
What breaks off ATP to produce energy? What is left over?
A phosphate group PO4. The result is energy and a molecule of ADP (adenosinediphosphate).
What are some of the functions of a cell that requires ATP?
Active transport of molecules across the plasma membrane.
Pumping ions for Polarization (Na+/K+ ATPase Pump)
Moving molecules or organelles within a cell.
Contraction of myocytes.
What is the most common fuel molecule?
It is the FIRST Stage of glucose catabolism. It can occur inside ALL cells.
Oxygen is NOT required for GLYCOLYSIS.
One molecule of Glucose produces 2 molecules of PYRUVIC ACID and 2 molecules of ATP.
What does one molecule of Glucose yield in GLYCOLYSIS?
2 Molecules of PYRUVIC ACID and 2 Molecules of ATP, it does this WITHOUT oxygen which makes it ANEROBIC.
What happens to the PYRUVIC Acid after GLYCOLYSIS if oxygen is NOT available?
It becomes LACTIC ACID which diffuses out of the cells as a waste product.
What happens to the PYRUVIC Acid after GLYCOLYSIS if oxygen IS available? Where does this occur?
The PYRUVIC acid molecules (X2) are further catabolized in the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle, Citric Acid Cycle).
This occurs as a MATRIX reaction INSIDE the mitochondria of a cell.
Describe the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
If OXYGEN is available the Tricarboxylic acid cycle will convert EACH PYRUVIC ACID (from the initial GLYCOLYSIS catabolism) gives off one carbon atom and then combines with 3 molecules of Oxygen to produce 3 molecules of CO2, 3 Molecules of H2O and 18 Molecules of ATP.
How many molecules of ATP do you get from ONE molecule of glucose if oxygen is NOT present? How many if it IS present?
2ATP without O2 and 38ATP with O2.
What happens to excess glucose in blood?
The excess Glucose molecules are joined together to form Glycogen which gets stored in the Liver and in Myocytes (muscle cells) for use later.
Glucose can also be converted to FATTY ACIDS through a process called Lipogenesis. Binding the Fatty Acid tails to Glycerol forms Diglycerides and Triglycerides which can be stored in ADIPOCYTES (fat cells).
The process by which excess GLUCOSE molecules are converted to Fatty Acids which get bound to Glycerol molecules and are stored as Diglycerides and Triglycerides in Adipocytes.
What is GLUCONEOGENESIS?
The creation of GLUCOSE molecules from other molecules, primarily products of fat catabolism and amino acid catabolism.
Lipolysis uses Fatty Acids by breaking them down and feeding 2 Carbon atom pieces into the TRICARBOXYLIC ACID Cycle to make ATP.
What are some TOXIC products of Catabolism of various molecules?
Nitrogen containing molecules from the catabolism of Amino Acids form which get converted to Urea and removed in the Urine.
Uric acid is formed from the catabolism of nucleic acids which get removed in the urine.
Bilirubin and other products of HEME catabolism are excreted in bile to the intestines and removed in feces.
How does the body replace damaged structural molecules?
By using ANABOLISM to build up molecules that are needed. This HAS TO HAPPEN INSIDE CELLS.
What process is used during ANABOLISM? What does it produce?
Dehydration Synthesis is used to build larger molecules out of smaller molecules, this results in the release of H2O.
What structural molecules are AMINO ACIDS used to replace? What process is used to build them up?
ANABOLISM using DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS is used to turn Amino Acids into: Enzymes, Contractile Proteins, Membrane Proteins and Glycoproteins.
What structural molecules are MONOSACCHARIDES used to replace? What process is used to build them up?
ANABOLISM using DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS is used to turn Monosaccharides into Glycoproteins, Receptos and Glycolipids.
What structural molecules are FATTY ACIDS+GLYCEROL used to replace? What process is used to build them up?
ANABOLISM using DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS is used to turn Fatty Acids+Glycerol into Glycolipids and Phospholipids.
What structural molecules are NUCLEOTIDES used to replace? What process is used to build them up?
ANABOLISM using DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS is used to turn Nucleotides into Nucleic Acids (DNA/RNA).
What are the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS?
They are Amino Acids that can't be formed from other Amino Acids. You must get them from your diet. There are 11 Essential Amino Acids.
What are the ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS?
They are the Fatty Acids that can't be formed from other Fatty Acids. You must get them from your diet. There are 2 Essential fatty acids.
Are there any Essential Monosaccharides? What about Nucleotides?
No, ALL monosaccharides and nucleotides can be formed inside the cells from other monosaccharides and nucleotides.