A&P Digestive Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P Digestive Anatomy Deck (69):
1

Name of groups of the digestive system

Alimentary canal and Accessory digestive organs

2

Alimentary canal performs what digestive functions

ingests, digests, absorbs and defecates

3

Accessory organs are what and do what

teeth, tongue, and large digestive glands and they assist

4

Alimentary canal is AKA

GI tract

5

Alimentary canal is what?

Coiled hollow muscular tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus

6

What organs, in correct order, are a part of the alimentary canal?

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine

7

Mouth is AKA

oral cavity

8

Mouth is lined with?

mucus membrane

9

Anatomy of the mouth

lips protect net rigor opening
cheeks form lateral walls
hard palate forms anterior roof and
soft palate forms roof

10

uvula is?

fingerlike projection of the soft palate

11

Vestibule is:

the space between lips, cheeks and teeth

12

Area contained by teeth is called

oral cavity proper

13

lingual frenulum is?

fold of mucus membrane that secures tongue to floor of mouth and limits posterior movements

14

Pharynx contains what two parts

oropharynx and laryngopharynx

15

Mouth passes food from where to where

into the oropharynx into the laryngopharynx

16

esophagus runs from where through to where

from pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach

17

Esophagus is essentially a

passageway that conducts food to the stomach

18

Four layers that make up the walls of the esophagus and stomach

1) mucosa
2) submucosa
3) muscularis externa
4) serosa

19

Mucosa

innermost layer that lines ST and Eso. Lumen. consists mainly of surface epithelium, small amount of connective tissue and a scanty smooth layer

20

submucosa

found just beneath mucosa and is a soft CT layer, containing blood vessels, nerve endings, MALT and lymphatic vessels

21

muscularis externa

muscular layer made up of inner circular and outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle

22

serosa

outer most layer of the wall, single flat layer of serous fluid producing cells known as the visceral peritoneum. Connected to the silpery parietal peritoneum which line the ab cavity

23

Alimentary canal wall contains two important intrinsic nerve plexuses

Submucosal nerve plexus
myenteric nerve plexus
part of ANS and help regulate mobility and secretory activity of GI tract

24

Stomach is ________ shaped

C

25

Stomach sits on the _____________ side of the AB cavity

left

26

Chyme is

simifluid mixture that results from the stomach breaking food down into small particles and mixing it with gastric juice

27

chyme leaves the stomach and enters the ________ by passing through the ______ ______

duodenum and pyloric sphincter and greater curvature

28

4 sections of the stomach

cardia
fundus
body
pylourus

29

rugae

wrinkles in the mucosa and submucosa of the stomach when the stomach is empty

30

Gastric pits are located where

in the gastric mucosa

31

Gastric pits have what that opens up in the bottom

gastric glads that secrete the various components of gastric juice

32

mucous cells job

secrete mucus which protects the stomach lining and keeps the stomach from digesting itself

33

parietal sells

secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor which is necessary for the absorption of vit B12. it also kills microbes in swallowed food

34

chief cells

secrete digestive enzymens such as pepsinogen

35

edteroendocrine cells

secrete the hormone ghrelin which stimulates the hypothalamus to increase appetite and gastrin which influences digestive function

36

ghrelin

homorone that stimulates the hypothalamus to increase appetite

37

gastrin

hormone that influences digestive function

38

duodenum

first 10 inches of the SI. receives chyme from the ST and well as pancreatic juice and bile. ST acid is neutralized and enzymes begin chemical digestion

39

jejunum

8 feet of SI. many large closely spaced folds and projections give the jej an enourmous surface area. ideal for nutrient absorption

40

ileum

last 12 feet of SI. Thinner and less blood then previous parts. Contains peyers patches

41

Pyloric sphincter means

gate keeper

42

Peristalis

wave like movement that moves digested material along the GI tract

43

Segmentation

ring like constrictions that break up food particles and kneads the contents of the intestines with digestive juices

44

intestinal lining-circular folds

slow the progress of chyme and increase contact with mucosa.

45

microvilli

small projections from plasma membrane of mucosa cells and complete the digestion of proteins and carbs in SI

46

Villi

fingerlike projections, which have large capillary bed and lymphatic capillary which absorb some digested foodstuffs

47

SI can only digest

small amounts of food at a time

48

LI extends from

ileoceacal valve to anus

49

major function of the LI

to dry out the indigestible food residue by absorbing water and eliminate residues from body as feces

50

Subdivisions of the LI

cecum, appendix, colon, rectum and anal canal

51

Cecum

sac-like first part of the LI

52

Appendix

hands from the cecum which is twisted which makes an ideal location for bacteria to accumulate and multiply

53

Colon divisions

ascending
right colic/hepatic flexure
transverse colon
left colic/splenic flexure
descending colon
S shaped sigmoid colon

54

ascending colon

travels up right side of the ab

55

transverse colon

travels across the ab cavity

56

descending colon

enters the pelvis

57

Sigmoid colon

s-shaped part interior to the pelvis

58

Liver

body's largest gland

59

liver has _____ number lobes

4

60

Which of the liver's lobes are visable from an anterior view

right and left

61

which of the liver's lobes are visable from behind?

caudate lobe and quadrate lobe

62

what seperates the right and left liver lobes

falciform ligament, also serves to anchor the liver to the ab wall

63

Digestive function of the liver

to produe bile

64

Bile:

yellow to green, wtery solution containing bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, phospholipids and a variety of electorlytes

65

What liver product aid in digestion

bile salts and phospholipids

66

how does bile salts work

they emulsify fats by providing more surface area for fat digesting enzymes to work

67

Gallbladder is a

small green sac that snuggles in a fossa in the interior surface of the liver

68

gallbladder stores

extra bile

69

Pancreas

Soft pink triangular
extends across abdomen from spleen to duodenum
produces enzymes that break down ALL categories of food
produces insulin and glucagon