A&P Digestive Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P Digestive Physiology Deck (38):
1

mechanical digestion

mixing food in mouth by tongue, churning of food in stomach and segmentation

2

segmentation

squeezing food along tract by moving it back and forth

3

chemical digestion

large food molecules are broken down into their building blocks by enzymenes

4

Carbohydrate foods are

monosaccharides

5

monosaccharides =

simple sugars

6

3 common carbohydrates

glucose, fructose and galactose

7

glucose

most important, represents our blood sugar levels

8

fructose

most abundant sugar in fruit

9

galactose

found in milk

10

Only carbohydrate our digestive system digests to simple sugars

sucrose, lactose, maltose and starch

11

Sucrose, lactose and maltose =

disaccharides, or double sugars, because each consists of two simple sugars put together

12

starch is a

polysaccharide = hundreds of glucose units

13

nondigested polysaccharide are used as

fiber (bluk) to move foodstuff

14

proteins

digested to amino acides

15

intermediate products of protein digestion are

polypeptides and peptides

16

digestion of lipids = 2 types of building blocks

fatty acids and alcohol (glycerol)

17

Digestive activity is mostly controlled by:

reflexes via the parasympathetic division of the ANS (rest and digest)

18

mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors

stimulated by stretch of an organ by food in the lumen, pH of contents, and presence of certain break down products of digestion

19

Digestion begins

once food in the mouth

20

Amylase

begins the chemical digestion of starches in the mouth

21

Reflexes are brought about by

parasympathetic fibers of CN 7 and 9

22

How much food absorbed in mouth?

None

23

Pharynx and Esophagus have what digestive function

none

24

Pharynx and esophagus act as.....

passageway to carry food to stomach

25

Two phases of swallowing

buccal and pharyngeal-esophageal

26

Vagus nerve

controls pharyngeal-esophagel phase of swallowing

27

Cardioesophageal sphincter

pressure of food causes it to open, food go through

28

Gastrin

hormone produced by stomach glands in response to food present and rising pH

29

Pepsinogen

protein digesting enzyme released in response to gastrin

30

Mucus and HCI

secreted along with Pepsinogen in response to Gastrin

31

HCI makes the stomach contents

acidic

32

Mucus

protects the stomach from ulcers

33

Acidic environment

makes peopsinogen convert to pepsin

34

Pepsin

active protein digesting enzyme

35

rennin

protein digesting enzyme that breaks down milk protein (children, no adults)

36

Absorption that takes place in stomach

none, other than aspirin

37

retropulsion

sphincter closing valve and pushing food back into stomach

38

in the SI food is

partially digested