A & P Exam 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A & P Exam 4 Deck (343):
1

The endocrine system works with the ____ system to maintain homeostasis.

nervous

2

How does the endocrine system communicate with the rest of the body?

Hormones travel through bloodstream & act of specific target cells

3

Reaction to stimuli is ____ and duration of effects is ____ compared to the nervous system.

slow
long

4

Chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands and secreted directly into blood vessels.

hormones

5

A cell that has receptors for a particular hormone is referred to as the ___ of that hormone.

target

6

Hormone secretion is usually controlled by what?

negative feedback system

7

Some endocrine glands, such as ____ ____ and _____ ____ are under direct stimulation from the nervous system.

adrenal medulla
posterior pituitary

8

Secretion of ____ and _____ from the adrenal medulla is stimulated by sympathetic nervous system.

epinephrine & norepinephrine

9

Are these major or minor endocrine organs? Pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, pancreas (islets), gonads.

Major

10

Are these major or minor endocrine organs? Kidneys, stomach, small intestine, placenta, thymus, pineal body.

minor

11

This endocrine gland is part of the diencephalon section of the brain. Its functions include appetite control, body temp regulation, control of wake-sleep cycles, controls activities of pituitary gland. Portal system of blood vessel links this with the anterior pituitary gland.

Hypothalamus

12

What structure in the hypothalamus secrete releasing and inhibitory hormones into portal blood vessels?

Modified neurons

13

Including secreting releasing & inhibitory hormones, what else does the hypothalamus secrete? (2)

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Oxytocin

14

ADH & Oxytocin are transported to the ____ ____ for storage. They are released into the bloodstream by nerve impulses from the hypothalamus.

posterior pituitary

15

The pituitary gland is also known as the ____, which means to grow beneath.

hypophysis

16

This part of the pituitary gland is the most rostral portion. It is stimulated by hypothalamus and direct feedback from target organs and tissues to produce its hormones.

Anterior pituitary

17

The anterior pituitary is also known as the

adenohypophysis

18

This is the caudal portion of the pituitary gland. It does not produce any hormones; stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus.

Posterior pituitary

19

The posterior pituitary is also known as the

neurohypophysis

20

Growth hormone is released from ____ gland. It is also known as somatotropin and somatotropic hormone.

anterior pituitary

21

Secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary is controlled by the ______ and ______ (somatostatin) from the hypothalamus.

growth hormone releasing hormone
growth hormone inhibitory hormone

22

____ is the only pituitary hormone that does not function through a target gland but instead exerts its effects on almost all tissues of the body.

GH (growth hormone)

23

This hormone: promotes growth in young animals, helps regulate metabolism of proteins, carbs, and lipids, increases protein synthesis in all cells of body, increases mobilization of lipids from storage in fat tissue and their breakdown for energy, decreases rate of glucose utilization.

GH

24

GH decreases rate of glucose utilization, also called

anti-insulin effects

25

In short, ___ enhances body protein, uses up fat stores, conserves carbs.

GH

26

Growth Hormone deficiency; congenital deficiency usually due to destruction of somatotrophs by a cyst; primarily seen in German Shepherds; lack of growth

Pituitary dwarfism

27

Excess secretion of GH prior to closure of physis

Pituitary Gigantism

28

Excessive secretion of GH after closure of physis; most commonly a fuctional adenoma of the somatotropic cells in the pituitary; older male cats; increase in body size, diabetes due to anti-insulin effects of GH.

Acromegaly

29

Secreted by AP, helps trigger and maintain lactation. Production & release continues as long as the teat or nipple continues to be stimulated by nursing or milking.

prolactin

30

Secretion of prolactin from the AP is normally inhibited by what hormone from the hypothalamus?

Prolactin inhibitory hormone

31

When the lactating teat is stimulated, the hypothalamus secretes what hormone which stimulates the AP to release prolactin?

Prolactin-releasing factor

32

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is also known as

thyrotropic hormone

33

This hormone secreted by the AP stimulates growth & development of thyroid gland & causes it to produce its hormones.

TSH

34

Secretion of TSH is regulated by feedback from the thyroid gland. It has direct effects on AP gland & through changes in _______ hormone produced by the hypothalamus.

thyrotropin-releasing hormone

35

This hormone secreted by the AP stimulates growth & development of the adrenal cortex & release of some of its hormones.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

36

ACTH is regulated by feedback from the hormones of the adrenal gland to the (2)

hypothalamus & AP

37

ACTH can also be released quickly as a result of stimulation of the hypothalamus by

stress

38

To override the inhibitory feedback system, the hypothalamus sends a burst of _____ hormone to the AP causing ACTH to be released quickly.

corticotropin-releasing hormone

39

This hormone is secreted by the AP. In females, it stimulates oogenesis and stimulates cells lining the follicles to produce and secrete estrogens. In males, it stimulates spermatogenesis.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

40

This hormone secreted by the AP completes process of follicle development in ovary, increasing amounts of estrogens feedback to AP & cause reduced production of FSH and increased production of ___.

Luteinizing hormone (LH)
LH

41

LH levels reach a peak when follicle is fully mature which usually causes

ovulation

42

After ovulation, LH stimulates cells in the empty follicle to multiply and develop into the

corpus luteum

43

The corpus luteum produces ___ hormones necessary for the maintenance of pregnancy.

progestin

44

In the male, LH stimulates ____ ___ within the testes to development and produce testosterone.

interstitial cells

45

This hormone secreted by the AP is associated with control of color changes in the pigment cells of reptiles, fish, and amphibians.

Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)

46

Administration of artificially large amounts of ___ to higher mammals can cause darkening of the skin from melanocyte stimulation.

MSH

47

The posterior pituitary gland, also known as ____, develops from the embryo's nervous system & looks like nervous tissue under the microscope.

neurohypophysis

48

The PP stores what 2 hormones produced in the hypothalamus?

antidiuretic (ADH) and oxytocin

49

The PP periodically releases ADH & oxytocin into the bloodstream in response to ___ impulses from the hypothalamus.

nerve

50

This hormone secreted from the PP has it effects on the uterus, causing contraction of the myometrium at the time of breeding & at parturition; causes milk letdown.

Oxytocin

51

ADH helps prevent ____, loss of large quantities of water in the urine

diuresis

52

Receptors in the ____ detect changes in osmotic pressure of blood that result from dehydration/hemoconcentration.

Hypothalamus

53

ADH travels to the ____ and causes resorption of more water from urine and returns it to the bloodstream. It also causes vasoconstriction.

kidney

54

ADH deficiency; pituitary (lack of ADH) or nephrogenic (no response to ADH); PU/PD, inability to concentrate urine; modified water deprivation test; dDAVP (derivative of ADH), continuous access to water.

Diabetes insipidus
(insipid means tasteless)

55

What stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone?

TSH

56

This gland consists of 2 lobes on either side of the larynx.

Thyroid gland

57

Thyroid hormone is produced in the ____ of the thyroid gland.

follicles

58

Each thyroid follicle consists of simple, cuboidal glandular cells surrounding a globule of thyroid hormone precursor called

colloid

59

What are the 2 thyroid hormones?

T3, triiodothyronine
T4, tetraiodothyronine

60

Thyroid hormones have negative feedback on what 2 endocrine glands?

hypothalamus and pituitary

61

Which thyroid hormone is produced in greater abundance but converts to the other before producing effects on target cells.

T4

62

These are effects of what hormones: influences development & maturation of CNS; growth & development of muscles and bones; calorigenic effect - regulates the metabolic rate of all body cells; allows animal to generate heat & maintain constant internal body temp.

Thyroid hormones

63

Production of thyroid hormones increase with exposure to ____ and then increases metabolic rate to generate more heat.

cold

64

TH affects metabolism of proteins, carbs, and lipids much like ___ does. Encourages synthesis of proteins if adequate energy sources, encourages breakdown of lipids for energy, discourages using carbs as energy source.

GH

65

Deficiency of thyroid hormone

Hypothyroidism

66

Hypothyroidism is most commonly what type? Lymphocytic thyroiditis and idiopathic atrophy of the thyroid gland.

primary hypothyroidism

67

CSX of what? Lethargy, weight gain, cold intolerance, alopecia.

Hypothyroidism

68

DX of what disease? Free T4 by ED, T4, TSH, Csx

Hypothyroidism

69

TX of hypothyroidism

thyroid hormone supplementation

70

Excessive thyroid hormone

Hyperthyroidism

71

Etiology of hyperthyroidism: ___ or ____ of thyroid gland typically in middle aged to older cats.

hyperplasia or neoplasia

72

CSX of what disease? PU/PD, polyphagia, weight loss, v/d, tachycardia, hyperactive

hyperthyroidism

73

DX of what disease: T4, free T4, Csx

hyperthyroidism

74

TX for hyperthyroidism

antithyroid drugs, sx, radioactive iodine

75

What disease? lack of iodine>decrease T4>increase TSH> hyperplasia of thyroid gland

goiter

76

Besides T3 & T4, the thyroid gland also secretes

calcitonin

77

Calcitonin is produced by ____ (____) cells located between thyroid follicles.

C cells (parafollicular cells)

78

This thyroid gland secretion helps maintain blood calcium levels, prevents hypercalcemia by encouraging excess calcium to be deposited in the bones.

calcitonin

79

___ is involved in muscle contraction, blood clotting, milk secretion, and formation & maintenance of the skeleton

calcium

80

Small, paled nodules in, on, or near the thyroid glands.

Parathyroid glands

81

What hormone do the parathyroid glands produce?

parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone

82

This hormone helps maintain blood calcium levels and prevent hypocalcemia.

PTH

83

PTH prevents ___ by converting Vit D into its active form calcitriol, causes kidneys to reabsorb calcium, releases calcium from bones.

hypocalcemia

84

What is the active form of Vit D?

calcitriol

85

This causes intestines to absorb calcium from food and releases calcium from bones.

Calcitriol

86

____ __ is carried in the bloodstream to the liver, where it is converted into the prohormone calcidiol.

Vit D

87

Circulating calcidiol can be converted into ____, the biologically active form of vit D, either in the kidneys or by monocyte-macrophages in the immune system.

calcitriol

88

A decreased production of PTH by the parathyroid gland.

primary hypoparathyroidism

89

Primary hypoparathyroidism is ___ in dogs and cats.

rare

90

CSX of primary hypoparathyroidism are consistent with _____; weakness, seizures.

hypocalcemia

91

DX of primary hypoparathyroidism

measure serum PTH & ionized calcium

92

TX for primary hypoparathyroidism

calcitriol & calcium supplements

93

Neoplasia of the parathyroid gland; causes hypercalcemia.

Primary hyperparathyroidism

94

With progressive renal disease, renal synthesis of calcitriol is also reduced. This causes

renal secondary hyperparathyroidism

95

Commonly seen in reptile not getting enough calcium or Vit D>increases PTH> mobilized calcium from bones> rubber jaw

Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (NSHP)

96

The adrenal glands consist of what 2 glands?

adrenal cortex
adrenal medulla

97

Which organ are the adrenal glands located near?

kidneys

98

What are the 3 layers of the adrenal cortex?

Zona glomerulosa
Zona fasiculata
Zona reticularis

99

The adrenal cortex is under direction of which AP hormone?

ACTH

100

What type of hormones are produced by the adrenal cortex?

steroid hormones

101

What are the 3 main groups of steroid hormones released from the adrenal cortex?

Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids, Sex hormones

102

What are the different types of glucocorticoids? (3)

cortisone, cortisol, corticosterone

103

These hormones produced by the adrenal cortex are under the direction of ACTH; have a hyperglycemic effect; also help maintain blood pressure & help the body resist the effects of stress.

Glucocorticoids

104

Glucocorticoids are secreted by which 2 layers of the adrenal cortex?

zona fasiculata & zona reticularis

105

Sex hormones are secreted by which 2 layers of the adrenal cortex?

zona fasiculata & zona reticularis

106

The adrenal cortex produces androgens and estrogens, which are __ hormones, in small amounts.

sex

107

Mineralocorticoids (e.g., aldosterone) are secreted by which layer of the adrenal cortex?

zona glomerulosa

108

ACTH has only a mild impact on regulating secretion of this adrenal cortex hormone.

mineralocorticoids

109

This adrenal cortex hormone regulates levels of important electrolytes (NA & K) in the body by: telling the kidneys to reabsorb NA & H2O follows; telling the kidneys to eliminate K.

Mineralocorticoids

110

Secretions of this adrenal cortex hormone are regulated by electrolyte concentrations, blood volume, arterial pressure, renal function, etc.

mineralocorticoids

111

This part of the adrenal gland develops from nervous tissue & resembles nervous tissue microscopically. It produces epinephrine & norepinephrine.

Adrenal Medulla

112

What is the adrenal medulla controlled by?

sympathetic autonomic nervous system

113

Excessive production of cortisol

hyperadrenocorticism

114

Hyperadrenocorticism in dogs

Cushing's

115

What disease: usually pituitary tumor, adrenal tumor, iatrogenic
CSX: PU/PD, polyphagia, panting, pot-belly, alopecia
DX: measure cortisol levels with ACTH stim test or low-dose dexamethasone suppression test
TX: trilostane - acts on adrenal cortex to block synthesis of steriods.

hyperadrenocorticism or Cushings

116

Hypoadrenocorticism is also called

Addison's

117

What type of hypoadrenocorticism: idiopathic atrophy of all layers of adrenal cortex resulting in deficiency of both mineralocorticoids and gludocorticoids.

Primary adrenocortical insufficiency

118

What type of hypoadrenocorticism: reduced secretion of ACTH resulting in deficiency of glucocorticoids only

Secondary adrenocortical insufficiency

119

CSX: lethargy, anorexia, vomiting
DX: electrolytes, ACTH stim test
TX: mineralocorticoid supplement +/- glucoorticoid supplement

Hypoadrenocorticism/Addisons

120

Hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets is do to an

excessive production of sex hormones

121

What disease: hyperplasia or neoplasia of adrenal cortex linked to early spay/neuter
CSX: alopecia, swollen vulva in females, prostatic cysts in males
DX: adrenal panel to evaluate levels of sex hormones
TX: adrenalectomy, Lupron, melatonin, deslorelin

hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets

122

This organ is located near the duodenum and has both exocrine and endocrine functions.

Pancreas

123

Groups of cells scattered throughout the pancreas with endocrine functions.

Islets of Langerhans (Pancreatic Islets)

124

Alpha cells produce

glucagon

125

Beta cells produce

insulin

126

Delta cells produce

somatostatin

127

This hormone is regulated mainly by blood glucose concentration. It raises blood glucose levels by stimulating liver cells to convert glycogen to glucose and by stimulating gluconeogenesis.

Glucagon

128

This hormone is regulated by blood glucose concentration. It lowers blood glucose levels by causing glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids to be absorbed into the body cells.

Insulin

129

This hormone secreted by the pancreas is the same as growth hormone inhibitory hormone. It is secreted when food is ingested. It inhibits secretion of insulin, glucagon, & GH; diminishes activity of the GI tract.

Somatostatin

130

This pancreatic hormone prevents rapid exhaustion of food, making it available over a longer period of time.

Somatostatin

131

Loss of beta cell function resulting in hypoinsulinemia. CSX: PU/PD, polyphagia, wgt loss. DX: CSX along w/persistent, fasting hyperglycemia & glucosuria. TX: insulin injections

Diabetes mellitus

132

Neoplasia of beta cells that causes increased insulin production. CSX: weakness, seizures from hypoglycemia. DX: hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia. TX: SX, corticosteriods.

Insulinoma

133

What organ produces erythropoietin?

Kidneys

134

This hormone stimulates bone marrow to increase production of RBCs.

erythropoietin

135

Production of erythropoietin is stimulated by

hypoxia

136

As RBC production increases, more O2 feeds back to kidneys and slows production of

erythropoietin

137

Kidney failure results in ____ because of kidneys' inability to produce erythropoietin.

anemia

138

The kidneys release ___ in response to decreased blood volume/blood pressure.

renin

139

Renin causes _____ to be converted to angiotensin I.

angiotensinogen

140

Angiotensinogen is produced by the

liver

141

Renin causes angiotensinogen to be converted to

angiotensin I

142

Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by

angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)

143

What causes the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone which causes the reabsorption of sodium from the kidneys.

Angiotensin II

144

Angiotensin II causes the adrenal cortex to release ___ which causes the reabsorption of sodium from the kidneys.

aldosterone

145

_____ causes the reabsorption of sodium from the kidneys, water follows sodium, therefore increasinng blood pressure.

Aldosterone

146

Angiotensin II also tells the posterior pituitary to release ___ thereby conserving water and increasing blood pressure.

ADH

147

____ is produced by G cells in the wall of the pyloric antrum.

Gastrin

148

Secretion of gastrin is stimulated by presence of ___ in the stomach.

food

149

Gastrin encourages muscular ___ of the stomach wall.

contractions

150

What 2 hormones are secreted by cells lining the small intestine?

Secretin and cholecystokinin

151

Secretion of ___ occurs in response to presence of acid in the duodenum.

secretin

152

Secretin stimulates the pancreas to secrete ___ to neutralize the acid. It also inhibits peristalsis of the stomach.

bicarbonate

153

______ stimulates the pancreas to release digestive enzymes into the duodenum in response to fats and proteins. It also inhibits peristalsis of the stomach.

Cholecystokinin

154

The placenta produces what 2 hormones to help support and maintain pregnancy?

estrogen & progesterone

155

The placentas of humans and horses release what hormone that makes fat stored in the mother's body available for use.

Chorionic gonadotropin

156

_____ extends cranially from the level of the heart up into the neck region along both sides of the trachea. It is large in young animals & atrophies later in life.

Thymus

157

___ plays an important part in the animal's developing immune system.

Thymus

158

The thymus secretes ____, a hormone that stimulates the development of T-lymphocytes.

thymosin

159

The pineal body secretes ___, a hormonlike substance that seems to affect moods and wake-sleep cycles. It may also play a role in the timing of seasonal estrous cycles in some species.

melatonin

160

These are hormonelike substances derived from unsaturated fatty acids and produced in a variety of body tissues (skin, intestine, brain, kidney, lungs, repro organs, eyes)

Prostaglandins

161

What prostaglandin causes rupture of the corpus luteum? Also called lutalyse.

PGF2alpha

162

_____ influence blood pressure, blood clotting, inflammation, GI, respiratory, reproductive & kidney function.

Prostaglandins

163

FSH>seminiferous tubules>

spermatogenesis

164

LH>interstitial cells>produce

androgens

165

The primary androgen is

testosterone

166

Testosterone has an overall ___ effect in that it stimulates buildup of proteins in muscle and bone.

anabolic

167

Ovaries are CONTROLLED by what 2 hormones?

FSH & LH

168

Ovaries PRODUCE what 2 hormones?

estrogens and progestins

169

Amount of estrogen produced by follicles ___ as follicles grow.

increases

170

Increasing estrogen levels cause the AP gland to ___ the production of FSH and ___ the production of LH.

reduce (FSH)
increase (LH)

171

_____ occurs when LH level peaks or LH surge.

Ovulation

172

In induced ovulators, ___ causes the release of LH from the AP.

breeding

173

Corpus luteum produces several hormones collectively called

progestins

174

What is the principle progestin that helps prepare the uterus to receive the fertilized ovum and is needed to maintain pregnancy.

Progesterone

175

The ___ system is the single most important route of waste-product removal in the body.

urinary

176

____ removes nearly all the soluble waste products from the blood and transports them out of the body. Urea, salts, & other products

Urinary system

177

The urinary system is also a major route of elimination for excess water in the body. Normally, urine is about ___% water.

95%

178

What other ways are waste products eliminated?

Resp. system: CO2
Sweat glands: water & salts
Digestive: bile

179

What is the study of the kidney?

Nephrology

180

The following are ways kidneys maintain ____:
removal of waste products; fluid balance regulation; acid-base balance regulation; production of hormones; influence release of ADH from PP; influence release of aldosterone from cortex of adrenal gland.

homeostasis

181

Where are the kidneys in relation to the abdominal cavity?

retroperitoneal

182

In most domestic animals (except pig) the right kidney is more ___ than the left.

cranial (righty tighty)

183

The kidneys are somehwat mobile and are pushed caudally as the diaphragm contracts. The left kidney is more ___ than the right.

mobile (lefty loosey)

184

The outer fibrous connective tissue layer of the kidney

capsule

185

The indented area on the medial side of the kidney. Ureter, nerves, blood & lymph vessel enter & leave kidney.

Hilus

186

What species has an outwardly lobulated kidney?

cattle

187

Most kidneys are bean shaped except the right kidney of the horse is ___ shaped

heart

188

Medulla of the kidney has numerous pyramid-shaped areas giving the medulla a scalloped appearance.

multipyramidal (multilobular) kidneys

189

___ is a cuplike extension of the renal pelvis into which the medullary pyramids fit. In cattle this empties directly into the ureter.

Calyx

190

Which species has a smooth outer kidney but is multipyramidal?

pigs

191

Medullary pyramids fuse to occupy the entire inner area of the kidneys. Ex: dogs, horses, cats, sheep.

Unipyramidal (unilobular) kidneys

192

The basic functional unit of the kidney

nephron

193

The ___ is composed of a glomerulus surrounded by Bowman's capsule.

renal corpuscle

194

A "tuft" of capillaries within the renal corpuscle.

glomerulus

195

A double-walled capsule that surrounds in the glomerulus.

Bowman's capsule

196

The space between the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule is the

capsular space

197

The renal corpuscle filters ___ in the first stage of urine production.

blood

198

Fluid filtered out of blood in the renal corpuscle is called

glomerular filtrate

199

The renal corpuscle is located in the renal

cortex

200

What is the continuation of the capsular space of Bowman's capsule called?

Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)

201

This is the longest part of the tubular system of the nephron. It has a twisting path through the cortex.

PCT

202

Epithelial cells lining the PCT are ___ and have a brush border that increases surface area for reabsorption and secretion functions.

cuboidal

203

When glomerular filtrate enters the PCT, it is now called

tubular filtrate

204

The Loop of Henle continues from the PCT. The descending loop of henle descends into the ___ and makes a U-turn.

medulla

205

Epithelial cells in the descending Loop of Henle still have a

brush border.

206

Epithelial cells in the ascending Loop of Henle become ___ ____ and lose their ___ ____.

simple squamous
brush border

207

The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a continuation of the ascending

loop of Henle

208

DCT from all nephrons in the kidney empty into

collecting ducts

209

This structure in the kidneys: carries tubular filtrate through the medulla to the renal pelvis; primary site of action of ADH; regulation of potassium & acid-base balance.

Collecting ducts

210

Collecting ducts are the primary site of action of what hormone?

ADH - antidiuretic hormone

211

Up to __% of the blood pumped by the heart goes to the kidneys.

25%

212

Every __-__ min, all the circulating blood in the body passes through the kidneys.

4-5

213

Arterioles called ____ ___ ___ carry blood into the renal corpuscle and continue as glomerular capillaries.

afferent glomerular arterioles

214

Glomerular capillaries filter some of the ___ out of the blood and put it in the capsular space of Bowman's capsule, now called glomerular filtrate.

plasma

215

Glomerular capillaries continue as ___ ____ ____ as they leave the renal corpuscle

efferent glomerular arterioles

216

The blood in the efferent glomerular arterioles is still arterial, ___ exchange hasn't taken place yet. The only place in the body where blood entering and leaving capillaries is oxygenated blood.

oxygen

217

Efferent glomerular arterioles divide to form the

peritubular capillaries

218

Tubular reabsorption and secretion takes place here. Oxygen transfer to the cells of the nephron also takes place here.

peritubular capillaries

219

Nerve supply to the kidneys is primarily from the ___ portion of the autonomic nervous system.

sympathetic

220

The sympathetic nervous system ___ the diameter of blood vessels to kidneys.

decreases

221

Is nerve supply essential for the kidney to function?

no

222

Glomerular capillaries contain many large ___ in capillary endothelium.

fenestrations

223

What forces plasma from the glomerulus out into the capsular space?

high blood pressure

224

Are fenestrations large enough to allow blood cells or large proteins to pass through?

No

225

How fast plasma is filtered through glomerulus. Depends on the rate of blood flow.

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

226

Abnormal amounts of protein in the urine can be used as an indicator of

glomerular damage

227

Glomerular filtrate contains waste products that need to be cleared from the body. Glomerular filtrate is considered to be ___ the body.

outside

228

____ is the mechanism to get useful substances in glomerular filtrate back into the body by way of the blood.

Reabsorption

229

About 65% of all tubular reabsorption takes place in the

PCT.

230

Substances to be reabsorbed pass out of the tubular lumen through or between tubular epithelial cells, then enter interstitial fluid and pass through endothelium into

peritubular capillaries

231

Sodium has to be actively transported across cell membranes. Sodium attaches to a ___ protein.

carrier

232

Glucose and amino acids attach to the same carrier protein and follow sodium into the cell by passive transport. This is called

sodium cotransport

233

The amount of glucose that can be reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubules.

Renal threshold of glucose

234

If the blood glucose level gets too high, the amount of glucose filtered through the glomerulus exceeds the amount that can be reabsorbed, and the excess is lost in the

urine

235

The renal threshold of glucose for dogs is

180 mg/dL

236

The normal blood glucose for dogs is

62-108

237

The renal threshold of glucose for cats is

240 mg/dL

238

The normal blood glucose for cats is

60-124

239

Sodium ions are also reabsorbed in the (2)

ascending loop of Henle
DCT

240

Sodium ions are reabsorbed in exchange for hydrogen, ammonium, or potassium ions under influence of what hormone?

aldosterone

241

Magnesium is reabsorbed from the PCT, ascending loop of Henle, and the

collecting duct

242

Potassium and calcium reabsorption takes place in the PCT, ascending loop of Henle, and

DCT

243

Calcium moves through the epithelial cells under the influence of what hormone?

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

244

During reabsorption, water follows the sodium, glucose, amino acids, and chloride into the interstitial space and peritubular capillaries by

osmosis

245

Even though urea is a waste product, the body maintains a normal level of urea in blood, called

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

246

Once water leaves the tubules during reabsorption, the concentration of other substances increases and they ____ diffuse out of the tubules.

passively

247

The excess of urea or other nitrogenous compounds in the blood. Elevated BUN/CREA

azotemia

248

Decreased blood flow to the kidneys due to dehydration, congestive heart failure and shock are causes of what type of azotemia?

prerenal azotemia

249

The inability of the kidney to adequately regulate urine production because of damage to the nephrons, i.e., toxins, inflammation, infections are causes of what type of azotemia?

renal azotemia

250

Obstruction that prevents urine from being expelled from the body (stones, blood clots, tumors) are causes of what type of azotemia?

postrenal azotemia

251

Waste products not filtered from the blood in the glomerular capillaries pass through the peritubular capillaries into the

tubules.

252

Secretion primarily occurs in the

DCT

253

Hydrogen, potassium, ammonium and urea are eliminated by

secretion

254

Some medications are eliminated from the body by secretion such as

penicillin and sulfonamides

255

When the tubular filtrate reaches the renal pelvis, it is considered

urine

256

Urine volume is determined by the amount of ___ contained in the tubular filtrate when it reaches the renal pelvis.

water

257

Urine volume is controlled by what 2 hormones?

ADH & aldosterone

258

____ (hormone) acts on the DCT and collecting ducts to promote water reabsorption.

ADH

259

____ increases reabsorption of sodium. (hormone)

aldosterone

260

ADH deficiency
Etiology: pituitary (Lack of ADH) or nephrogenic (no response to ADH)
CSX: PU/PD, inability to concentrate urine
DX: modified water deprivation test
TX: dDAVP, continuous access to water

diabetes insipidus

261

A continuation of the renal pelvis. Tube that exits the kidney at the hilus and connects to the urinary bladder.

Ureter

262

The ureters continually move urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder by

peristaltsis

263

_____ epithelium allows ureters to stretch as urine passes through them on its way to the bladder.

transitional

264

Ureters enter the urinary bladder at an ____ angle.

oblique

265

This functions to collect, store, and release urine. It is composed of a muscular sac and neck.

Urinary bladder

266

The urinary bladder is lined with ___ epithelium that stretches as the bladder becomes filled with urine.

transitional

267

Wall of the urinary bladder contains ____ muscle bundles that run lenghtwise, obliquely, and in a circular direction

smooth

268

Neck of the bladder extends caudally from the sac into the __ canal and joins the urethra.

pelvic

269

When the trigger point is reached, a spinal reflex returns a motor impulse to bladder muscles causing them to contract. This contraction gives the sensation of

having to urinate

270

____ control of the muscular sphincter around the neck of the bladder results in temporary control of urination.

Voluntary

271

Expulsion of urine from the urinary bladder into the urethra is called (2)

Micturition or uresis

272

The urethra is lined with ___ epithelium which allows it to expand.

transitional

273

The _____ urethra is shorter and straighter than the long, curved ____ urethra.

female
male

274

The sphincter at the neck of the urinary bladder closes at the beginning of ____ to prevent semen from entering the bladder and mixing with urine.

ejaculation

275

What are the 4 orders in the Reptilia class?

Crocodylia, Squamata, Chelonia, Rhynocephalia

276

Alligators, caimans, and crocodiles are in which order?

Crocodylia

277

Snakes and lizards are in which order?

Squamata

278

Turtles, tortoises & terrapins are in which order?

Chelonia

279

These types of animals, including reptiles, are unable to generate body heat internally. Body temp depends on environmental temp. 2 exceptions: leatherback sea turtles & pythons

Ectotherms/Poikilotherms

280

Reptiles maintain body temps via _____ thermoregulation (basking, coiling).

behavioral

281

Reptiles' ability to thermoregulate depends on access to temperatures within the

preferred optimal temperature zone (POTZ)

282

This is the range of temperatures in which the animal can perform all necessary metabolic functions

preferred optimal temperature zone (POTZ)

283

Ectotherms regulate temp depending on

metabolic needs

284

Ectothermy allows many reptiles to survive on ___ amounts of food.

small

285

If temperatures are too ____, reptiles can suffer from digestive problems, immunosuppression, and other disorders.

low

286

If temps are too ___, reptiles are forced to maintain a high metabolic rate and may suffer from energy deficits.

high

287

Reptiles will undergo ____ or brumation when temps drop below POTZ.

hibernation

288

The epidermis of reptiles is made of distinct scales formed by a ___ of the epidermis and is relatively impermeable.

folding

289

This type of keratin on reptiles is soft, flexible, and found in the interscalar skin.

alpha keratin

290

This type of keratin on reptiles in rigid and found in scales.

beta keratin

291

The dermis of reptiles is dense connective tissue that contains blood & lymph vessels, nerves and

chromatophores.

292

The subcutaneous space in reptiles is _____, making SQ injections inadvisable.

limited

293

The process of shedding the skin is controlled by the

thyroid gland

294

Shed skin of reptiles is called

exuvia

295

The process of shedding the skin is called

ecdysis

296

An enzyme-containing ___ is secreted between old and new epidermal layers during ecdysis.

lymph

297

During ecdysis, skin color ___ and spectale opacifies.

dulls

298

The term for abnormal shedding of the skin is

dysecdysis

299

Causes of dysecdysis include (4)

low humidity, dehydration, underlying illness, lack of cage furniture

300

Tx for dysecdysis

proper husbandry, soaking

301

The iris of reptiles is made of skeletal muscle and is under ___ control.

Voluntary

302

Since the iris of reptiles is under voluntary control, ___ are not predictable.

PLR's

303

Snakes and some lizards have this clear, scale-like structure formed by the fusion of the upper and lower eyelids instead of eyelids.

Spectacle

304

The spectacle is ___ to topical medications

impermeable

305

Most reptiles have ____ developed extraocular muscles, with the exception of chameleons.

poorly

306

Chelonians have no ___ ___ so tears spill over the lid margin.

nasolacrimal duct

307

Most reptiles (exceptions: snakes & crocodilians) have ____ bones which help the eye maintain its shape.

scleral

308

Crocodilians are the only reptiles that have a ____ which help them see better in the dark.

tapetum

309

This structure is found in tuataras and some lizards. It is a rudimentary retina & cornea with no iris, lids, or musculature. It may play a role in hormone production & thermoregulatory behavior.

Parietal eye

310

The parietal eye is connected to the pineal body via the

parietal nerve

311

The location of the heart varies in reptiles. For ____, the heart is on midline just caudal to the thoracic girdle and ventral to the lungs.

chelonians

312

The location of the heart varies in reptiles. For most ____ the heart is within the thoracic girdle.

lizards

313

The location of the heart varies in reptiles. For ____ and some lizards, the heart is more caudal in the coelomic cavity.

Crocodilians

314

The location of the heart varies in reptiles. For ____, the heart is usually at junction of first & second third of the body length but is fairly mobile.

snakes

315

The heart of most reptiles has ___ atria and __ ventricle.

2 atria
1 ventrile

316

There are 3 regions within the ventricle that are functionally separate. What are they?

Cavum venosum
Cavum arteriosum
Cavum pulmonale

317

In times of ___ ____, reptiles can shunt blood away from the lungs.

oxygen deprivation

318

____ are the only reptiles that possess a four-chambered heart. It is very different from birds and mammals.

Crocodilians

319

When the vagus nerve of lizards is suddenly stimulated, it sets off a chain of events within the body, most notably a rapid reduction of BP and HR. This is called

vasovagal reflex

320

The vasovagal reflex is triggered by applying gentle pressure to both

eyeballs

321

Mature reptilian RBCs are different from mammalian in what 2 ways?

nucleated, oval

322

The WBC in reptiles that is analogous to neutrophils.

heterophils.

323

Because heterophils do not possess peroxidase & acid phosphatase which break down necrotic material, reptiles produce ___ pus instead of liquid material.

caseous

324

What are the different blood collection sites of reptiles? (5)

ventral coccygeal vein
dorsal coccygeal vein
jugular
subcarapacial sinus
cardiac puncture

325

Reptiles are capable of surviving long periods without breathing due to their large pulmonary volume, efficient ___ metabolism, and cardiac shunting capabilities.

anaerobic

326

Respiration in reptiles is driven by ___ levels in blood, as compared to CO2 levels in mammals.

O2

327

Reptiles do not have an epiglottis, only a ___ in the rostral portion of the oral cavity.

glottis

328

Paired ___ cartilages border the glottal opening and open during respiration

arytenoid

329

The only vocalizations of reptiles are hissing, grunting, and bellowing. This is because they do not have

vocal cords

330

A glottal keel is present in some species of snakes. This increases

volume of vocalizations

331

Tracheal rings are ___ in chelonians and _____ in lizards and snakes.

complete - chelonians
incomplete - snakes & lizards

332

The ___ are analogous to alveoli in mammals. They are fixed structures (do not expand or contract) surrounded by capillaries.

faveoli

333

This lung type is a simple, saclike structure. The cranial portion is the site of gas exchange. The caudal portion is avascular and comparable to avian air sac. Snakes and some lizards have this lung type.

Unicameral

334

This lung type is present is chelonians, some lizards, and crocodilians. It has many compartments and possesses intrapulmonary bronchi.

Multicameral

335

This lung type is present in iguanas and chameleons. It has characteristics of both unicameral & multicameral lungs.

Paucicameral

336

Most snakes only have a single ___ lung.

right

337

There is no true ___ in reptiles that would separate the thoracic & abdominal cavity in mammals.

diaphragm

338

Since reptiles do not possess a true diaphragm, they have one cavity called

coelomic cavity

339

The single bone in the middle ear of reptiles is called

columella

340

The columella connects to the tympanum and the ____ bone.

quadrate

341

Since the columella articulates with the quadrate bone, it allows snakes to be very sensitive to ground vibrations transmitted through the

mandibles

342

Concerning feeding, snakes & crocodilians are strict

carnivores

343

Snakes & lizards have deeply forked tongues which function as particle delivery system for vomeronasal organ or _____ organ, an accessory olfactory organ.

Jacobson's