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Flashcards in A&P Final Deck (167):
1

Endocrine glands secrete chemicals called

hormones

2

Endocrine glands are

ductless

3

Hormones secreted by endocrine glands are secreted where

directly into capillaries

4

VOCAB: Target Organs/Target Tissue

Organs or tissues "targeted" by hormones which then have specific effects on the "targets"

5

3 groups of hormones

amines, proteins and steroids

6

When are hormones secreted?

When there is a need for them

7

Cells in the endocrine glands respond to what?

changes in blood or to other hormones in blood

8

VOCAB: negative feedback mechanism

information about the hormonal effects is "fed back" to the gland, which then DECREASES (negative) the secretion of the hormone

9

VOCAB:
Hypophysis is AKA

pituitary gland

10

VOCAB:
Infundibulum

short stalk that the pituitary gland hangs from the hypothalamus

11

VOCAB:
neurohypophysis

posterior pituitary

12

VOCAB
adenohypophysis

anterior pituitary

13

ADH

antidiruetic hormone produced by hypothalamus and stored/released by posterior pituitary

14

oxytocin

produced by the hypothalamus and stored/released by the posterior pituitary

15

ADH is AKA

vasopressin

16

VOCAB
Milk Let Down reflex is caused by:

release of oxytocin which stiumlates the contraction of smooth muscle around mammary glands

17

Growth Hormone is AKA

somatotropin

18

What promotes growth indirectly by increasing the transport of amino acids into the cells, increasing the rate of protein sysnthesis

Growth Hormone

19

What stimulates cell division in tissues capable of mitosis

Growth Hormone

20

VOCAB:
TSH is AKA and is defined how?

thyrotropin. Target organ is the thyroid gland and then it stimulates normal growth of thyroid and secretion of T4 and T3

21

ACTH is AKA

adrenocorticotropic Hormone

22

What does ACTH do

stimulates secretion of cortisol by adrenal cortex and is produced in any physiological stress situation

23

VOCAB
Hypoglycemia

deficiency of glucose in the blood stream

24

Responsible for lactation

Prolactin

25

Gonadotopic hormone that stimulates follicles

FSH aka Follicle Stimulating Hormone

26

Gonadotropic hormone responsible for ovulation

Luteninizing hormone

27

VOCAB
Isthmus

middle connection piece of thyroid gland

28

What produces T4 and T3

Thyroid follicles

29

Iodine is required for synthesis of T4 and T3
True or False

True

30

T4 and T3 do what

increase cell respiration of all food types and increase energy and heat production

31

True or False
T4 and T3 are essential for normal physical growth, normal mental development and maturation of reproductive system

TRUE

32

Secretion of T3 is by

stimulation of TSH from anterior pituitary gland

33

Decresases reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bones to blood

Calcitonin

34

VOCAB
Hypercalcemia

The presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism

35

Parathyroid gland produces

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

36

Parathyroid hormone

increases reabsorption of Ca and phosphate thereby raising their level

37

Calacitonin and Parathyroid hormone work together to

maintain blood calcium at normal range

38

VOCAB
Islets of Langerhans

hormone producing cells in the pancreas

39

Alpha cells produce

glucagon

40

beta cells produce

insulin

41

Both alpha and beta cells are part of

Islets of Langrehans in the pancreas

42

VOCAB
glycogenolysis

glycogen to glucose breakdown

43

VOCAB
gluconeogenesis

making new glucose

44

Increases the transport of glucose from blood into cells increasing the permeability of cell membranes to glucose

Insulin

45

VOCAB
glycogenesis

glycogen production

46

Insulin secretion is stiumlated by

hyperglycemia

47

VOCAB
Delta Cells

produce somatostatin, which inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon

48

Adrenal Glands aka

suprarenal glands

49

2 parts of adrenal glands

inner adrenal medulla and outer cortex

50

VOCAB
Catecholamines

neruotransmitter that has an effect on the sympathetic nervous system

51

Epinepherine and Norepinephrine are produced where

adrenal glands

52

Norepinephrine significant function

vasoconstriction in the skin, viscera and skeletal muscles (raises BP)

53

Epinepherine

increases HR, increases the use of fats for energy and increases the rate of cell respiration

54

Adrenal Cortex secrete what 3 types of steroid ormones

mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and sex hormones

55

VOCAB
Mineralocorticoids

A corticosteroid, such as aldosterone, that is involved with maintaining the salt balance in the body.

56

VOCAB
glucocorticoids

any of the group of corticosteroids predominantly involved in carbohydrate metabolism

57

Most abundant mineralocorticoids

Aldosterone

58

Aldosterone does what

targets KD and increases re-absorption of sodium and excretion of potassium

59

Most important glucocorticoid

Cortisol

60

Cortisol is an

inflammatory

61

Benefit of estrogen

lowers blood levels of cholesterol and TG

62

promotes the storage of glycogen and further growth of blood vessels in the endometrium

progesterone

63

2 hormones secreted by the placenta

progesterone and estrogen

64

secreted by the corpus luteum

Inhibin

65

2 hormones secreted by testes

testosterone and inhibin

66

Secreted by the substentacular cells of the testes

Inhibin

67

Inhibin function

decrease secretion of FSH

68

What performs all of the digestive functions: ingests, digests, absorbs and defecates?

Alimentary canal (GI tract)

69

Pharynx is subdivided into what?

nosopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

70

Walls of the esophagus and stomach are made up of what 4 layers

mucosa
submucosa
muscularis externa
serosa

71

Chemical break down of proteins begins where

Stomach

72

Chief cells produce what?

pepsinogen which is a protein digesting enzyme

73

Mucosa is made up of

mucus cells that produce protective layer of bicarbonate rich alkaline mucosa that protects the stomach

74

Most digestive activity takes place...

in the pyloric region

75

Define chyme

what food turns into after processed in the ST

76

Body's major digestive organ

Small intestine

77

Small Intestine length

7-13 feet

78

Major function of the Large Intestine

dry out indigestible food residue and eliminate residue from body as feces

79

Subdivisions of the large intestine

cecum, appendix, colon, rectum and anal canal

80

Largest gland in the body

Liver

81

VOCAB
Monosaccharides

Simple Sugars

82

3 simple sugars in our diet

glucose
fructose
galactose

83

sucrose, lactose and maltose are

double sugars or disaccharides

84

starch is a

polysaccharide

85

proteins are digested to

amino acids

86

what 2 different types of building blocks come from the digestion of lipids

fatty acids and alcohol (glycerol)

87

mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors are stiumulated by

stretch of an organ by food, pH of contents and presence of certain break down products of digestion

88

both mechanical and chemical digestion begins where

in the mouth

89

salivary amylase does what

begins the digestion of startch

90

Delutition is another word for

swallowing

91

2 phases of swallowing

buccal phase and pharyngeal esophageal phase

92

food in the stomach and a rise in pH will stimulate the secretion of what

gastrin

93

bile is needed for absorption of what vitamins

ADEK (fat soluble)

94

How many digestive enzymes in colon

NONE

95

Vitamins K and B are made

by some of the bacteria in the Large Intestine

96

Haustral contractions do what and last how long

last 1 minute every 30 minutes and move feces through the LI

97

Location of Kidneys

extend from T12-L3

98

Kidneys sit atop

adrenal glands

99

outer region of Kidney

renal cortex

100

deeper to cortex part of kidney (darker)

renal medula

101

found inside the renal medulla

renal/medullary pyramids

102

Define calyces

extensions of the pelvis and form cup shaped areas that enclose tips of pyramids

103

Calyx function?

collecturine

104

The functional unit of KD integral to urine formation

Nephron

105

Glomerulus

network of capillaries bunched in the cup, with both ends of the capillary connected to a vessel to bring blood to the cup and take blood from the bapillaries

106

Blood in the afferent arterioles comes from

renal artery

107

Renal arteries deliver _______ cardiac ouput

20-25%

108

the arterial supply for the KD is the _____ and it arises from ______

renal artery, abdominal aorta

109

Blood pressure regulating substance released by the kidneys

renin

110

Three process for urine formation

glomerular filtration, tubular absorption and tubular secretion

111

A nonselective passive process in which fluid passes from blood into glomerular capsule

glomerular

112

Urine formation 3 processes

glomerular filtration
tubular absorption
tubular secretion

113

Glomerular filtration

nonselective passive process in which fluid passes from blood into glomerular capsule part of renal tubule

114

Tubular reabsorption begins

as soon as filtrate enters the proximal convoluted tubule

115

tubular cells are

transporters

116

Nigrogenous wastes include

urea
uric acid
creatinine
various ions

117

process important for getting rid of substances not already in filtrate

Tubular secretion

118

Filtrate

essentially blood plasma with out blood proteins and very little water

119

urine is different from

Filtrate

120

urine contains

nigtrogenous wastes and unneeded stubstance

121

Urine pH

slightly acidic around 6

122

Ureters

passageways that cart urine from KD to BL

123

Trigone

smooth triangular region of the BL base outlined by three openings

124

Trigone important because?

infections tend to persist in this area

125

Micturition is

the act of emptying the bladder

126

blood composition depends on 3 major factors

diet, cellular metabolism and urine output

127

Major roles of KD

excretion of nitrogenous waste
maintaining water and electrolyte balance of blood
ensuring proper blood pH

128

2/3 of body fluid is

Intracellular fluid

129

1/3 body fluid is

extracellular fluid

130

Three phases of menstruation

Menstrual, proliferative and secretory

131

Day one is

the day of menstruation

132

Day 28 is

the day before menstruation

133

Define Menstruation

the vaginal bleeding that occurs with the shedding of part of the inner lining of the uterus

134

VOCAB
proliferative phase

Days 5-14 during which the endomentrium rapidly increases in thickness and the uterine glands lengthen

135

Volume of blood in menses

up to 80ml

136

Little chance of conception

before day 9 and after day 20

137

Secretory phase

Days 14-48, secretions become thicker and ovulation happens

138

VOCAB
rete testis

tubules that the semininferous tubes empty sperm into, then sperm travels to the epididymis

139

VOCAB
Epididymis

first part of the duct system in the testes that transports sperm

140

Accessory organs of the male ducal system

epididymis, ductus deferens and urethra

141

Sperm take ? days to mature

20

142

main function of Ductus Deferns

propel live sperm from storage sites into the urethra

143

Urethra extends from where to where

base of the bladder to the tip of the penis

144

3 segments of the urethra

prostatic urethra, membranous urethra and the penile urethra

145

Define perineum

the area between the anus and the scrotum or vulva

146

VOCAB
Spermatogenesis

Formation process of sperm

147

VOCAB
Spermiogenesis

Final stage of sperm formation

148

Finger like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes

Fimbriae

149

Anteflexed

upper portion of Uterus bent forward

150

Define peritoneum

The serous membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen and covering the abdominal organ

151

The part of the body of the uterus above the attachment of the uterine tubes is known as

the Fundus

152

Part of the vagina surrounding the cervix

Fornix

153

Define Corpus Luteum

ruptured follicle after ovulation

154

Define fertilzation

fusion of sperm and ova to form a zygote

155

Define acrosomal cap

head of sperm containing enzymes required for penetration of outer layer of ova

156

Time spent in prenatal development

Gestation

157

First Trimester

12 weeks

158

fertilized mass of cells (4+ days after fertilization)

Blastocyst

159

2 umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein

umbilical cord

160

Placenta secretes

HCG, prolactin, relaxin, estrogen and progesterone

161

start of 3rd week to the end of the 8th week

embryonic period

162

define embryo

developing organsim during the embryonic period

163

expulsion of baby

parturition

164

3 stages of labor

dilation, expulsion and placental

165

the uterus reduces in size and the placenta separates from the uterine wall to be expelled as afterbirth during the

placental phase

166

cessation of menstration for 1 year with NO spotting, OR surgical removal of ovaries

menopause

167

Premenopausal

8% of women before age 40