A&P of cardiovascular system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P of cardiovascular system Deck (41):
1

Endocardium
Myocardium
Epicardium

Endo-surrounds the heart(inner)
Myo-muscle (middle layer)
Epi-outer cardial layer

2

Endocarditis

Infection of the heart caused by a bacteria, usually strep (effects valves of the heart) (vegitation on the valve)

3

Pericarditis

Inflammation of the pericardium
(Pinpoint, sharp, chest pain)

4

Myocarditis

Inflammation of the heart caused by viral infection. If left untreated, heart failure.

5

Bicuspid

Mitral valve (Left)
AV valve

6

Semilunar valve

Pulmonary and Aortic Valve

7

Tricuspid

Right AV valve

8

Stenosis

Hardening and narrowing

9

Coronary perfuses during

Diastole

10

Papilary muscles

muscles inside the chambers of the heart

11

Chordae Tendineae

Tendens of the coronary valves

12

Anastomoses

Collateral Circulation (branch off above the blockage)

13

ANP

(atrial natriuretic peptide)
Produced, stored and released in atria
Responds to atrial distention and sympathetic stimulation

14

BNP

(brain natriuretic peptide)
Produced, stored and released in ventricular muscle and also the brain
Responds to ventricular dilation and sympathetic stimulation

15

angiotensin II

Potent Vasoconstrictor
converted from angiotensin I

16

Sympathetic nerves

intervate the entire heart

17

Parasympathetic nerves

Only intervate the atria

18

Parasympathetic control of HR

Atria
Slows HR

19

Sympathetic control of HR

Atria & Ventricles
Adrenals
Increases Heart Rate

20

Cardiac Cycle

Diastole – Resting Phase of L Ventricle
Systole
Ejection Fraction - % of blood ejected from L Ventricle (55-70%)
Stroke Volume – Amt of blood discharged from heart
Preload – Amt of blood enters heart
Cardiac Contractility – How hard heart contracts
Afterload – Amount of blood that leaves the L Ventricle
Cardiac Output – Heart Rate x Stroke Volume, based per minute.

21

How can we improve stroke volume?

Increase HR, Increase Contractility and change amout of fluid entering and exiting heart

22

How does calcium effect the heart?

Contractility

23

Starling law

The Greater the stretch, the greater the fill, the greater the contraction (within reason) – You need to make sure the patient’s heart can take the greater fill, (can be done via meds) because if it cannot, you can injure the heart.

24

Cardiac muscles (atrial)

Atrial- SA Node 60-100

25

Cardiac Muscle (ventricular)

AV Junction 40-60

26

Cardiac Muscle Excitatory and conductive fibers

Intercalated discs (400x faster)
Syncytium

27

Cardiac Muscle Atrioventricular Bundle

Bundle of HIS

28

Syncytium

Atrial or Ventricular
ALL OR NONE

29

Excitability

Waiting to respond

30

Conductivity

propagate impulse, pass it on

31

Automaticity

self-depolarization All cardiac cells have

32

Contractility

contract or shorten the level of contraction

33

Rhythmicity

Ability to beat in a regular, rhythmic fashion

34

2 types of cardiac cells

Mechanical- Contraction and relaxation: have the ability to pace but usually will not

Pacemaker- Depolarization and repolarization

35

Cardiac Cycle

End of one heartbeat to the end of the next heart beat

36

S1

AV Valves Closing during ventricular systole, “lubb”

37

S2

semilunar valves closing at the beginning of ventricular diastole, “dubb”

38

S3

heard after S2, may indicate heart failure

39

S4

heard late in diastole just before S1, may be heard in patients with CHF.

40

Tunica Intima
Tunica Media
Tunica Adventitia

Tunica Intima
innermost epithelial layer
Tunica Media
middle smooth muscle layer
Tunica Adventitia
outermost connective tissue layer

41

Baroreceptors

Blood pressure
Aortic arch and Carotid bodies