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Flashcards in A revolution in medicine 1800-1900 Deck (21):

How did England change during the Industrial Revolution?

The population grew rapidly
After 1851 more people lived in towns than in the
countryside, and more people worked in industry than
in agriculture.
Trade became an easier route to wealth than owning
The new towns led to poverty, which led to new social
Some believed it was not the business of the
government to interfere in the everyday life of the
people. Others argued that the government actually
had a duty to interfere.
New services such as the "Penny Post" (the first postai
service developed.


What was the impact of these new developments on medicine?

Pasteur and Koch completely altered the way
medicine was understood.
Snow helped to defeat Cholera.
A new industry developed manufacturing remedies.
Florence Nightingale played a large role in improving
the care sick people received in hospitals.
However when the Boer War started in 1899, 90% of
volunteers were found to be "unfit to serve".


How did Louis Pasteur improve understanding of disease?

Known as the "father of microbiology".
He pioneered "Germ Theory" — the idea that disease is
caused by tiny organisms he called germs.
He built on Jenner's work on vaccination and learn to grow vaccines in the laboratory.
He invented the process of pasteurization, named after him, to reserve liquids and stop them spoiling.


How did Robert Koch improve the understanding of disease?

He was a German microbiologist who won a Nobel prize in 1905
He invented a way to see bacteria so that it was easier to see it them under a microscope.
He developed an experimental approach to discover which bacteria caused which disease.
He identified the bacteria which caused anthrax, tuberculosis and cholera.


How did Paul Ehrlich contribute to the understanding of disease?

A German physician who originally worked for Koch.
He won a Nobel prize in 1908
He used staining techniques to study blood cells
His work on chemotherapy led to the idea of "magic bullets" that would target specific organisms in the body.
He developed Salvarsan (606 -- 606th drug developed) as a treatment for syphilis.


How did Florence Nightingale impact the prevention of disease?

She dramatically cut mortality rates in hospitals, from 40% to just 2%.
She set up Britain's first nursing school, and raised £44,000 to fund it.
She radically changed hospitals in the Crimea, keeping them clean and orderly,
She published "notes on hospitals" in 1863, setting out her principals for running clean, safe and well-ventilated


What part did James Simpson play in making operations endurable?

He worked on anaesthetics during operations
Discovered that chloroform was effective for putting patients to sleep during operations
He was an obstetrician and was focusing on lessening pain in childbirth.
He also improved the design of forceps for delivering babies.


How did Joseph Lister help to beat infection?

Improved people's chances of surviving surgery.
He pioneered antiseptic surgery using carbolic acid sprayed over the patient and the operating theater to keep infection at bay.
In 1871 he developed a machine that sprayed carbolic acid over everything.
He managed to reduce the mortality rate in hisoperations from 46% to 15%
Others copied his methods and he became known as the father of antiseptic surgery.


How did Doctor Barnardo help to reduce poverty?

He set up a "ragged school" where hungry children were given a cheap breakfast to help them learn better.
There was a wood-chopping brigade and a city messenger's brigade to help boys find work once they had left school.
There was a factory Girls' club and Institute to support girls Barnado also opened a series of homes for children with the slogan "no destitute child ever turned away".
There were also schemes to send boys to Canada and
Australia as farm workers after being trained in England


How did technological developments help the development of medicine?

The stethoscope was invented in Paris in 1816 for listening to breathing ailments, They became widely used from 1850.
Thermometers were invented in 1895
Powerful microscopes were invented in 1850
The first x ray machine was invented in 1895.
Clinical trials became the norm, so scientists could test
medical theories,
Specialisation within medicine became more normal
people became experts in one area.


In what ways did medicine not progress?

People believed that miasma and bad air caused diseases, such as cholera.
Some still used bleeding as a form of treatment.
People still used home remedies such as honey for cuts and scrapes.


What diseases caused problems during the industrial revolution?

Scarlet Fever


What did people think caused the
Cholera epidemics? (1831-32, 1848, 1854, 1866)

Miasma bad smells - In 1858 the "great stink" swept
through London. Dry weather built up human and industrial waste, and there was no rain to wash it into the Thames. They believed this spread illness through the smells.


What was used to combat the Cholera epidemic?

Public Health Act 1848, encouraging towns to clean up and improve conditions.
In 1958 London started building new sewers.
1975 Housing Act allowed councils to knock down houses and replace them.
Central board set up of Health set up to improve public
health in towns.
Local town councils were empowered to spend money on cleaning up their streets.
Some cities such as Liverpool made dramatic changes, but man cities chose to do nothing.


Which treatments to combat the Cholera epidemic showed evidence of scientific understanding?

John Snow's careful investigation led to the understanding that dirty water was causing Cholera. He obtained permission to remove the pump handle from a local infected pump, forcing people to get there
drinking water elsewhere.


Explain the significance of John Snow

In 1849 John Snow published a book arguing that cholera was spread through dirty water rather than through the air. The government didn't agree. He mapped the location of each death and worked out that they all collected their water from the local water pump. He removed the handle of the pump, forgiving people
to collect water elsewhere. It was later discovered that a cesspit one metre from the water pump was leaking dirty water into the drinking supply.


How did hospitals develop during this period?

Florence Nightingale revolutionised hospitals in this period.
She dramatically cut mortality rates in hospitals, from 40% to just 2%.
She set up Britain's first nursing school, and raised £44,000 to fund it.
She radically changed hospitals in the Crimea, keeping them clean and orderly.
She published "notes on hospitals" in 1863, setting out her principals for running clean, safe and well-ventilated


Case study: what serious outbreak hit Lincoln in 1905?

An epidemic of Typhoid occurred in the city of Lincoln. Lincoln obtained water from the River Witham, local streams and disused grave pits. It was known that raw sewage entered 30 miles upstream but they believed this was "acceptable". There were over 1,000 cases before it began to subside, The bishop of Lincoln preached a sermon claiming the outbreak was the "hand of God". The pressure was on to find new sources of water. A new water pump was completed at the price of £200,000. By 1911 a new reservoir was built


How did social Welfare change?

•William Farr pushed for the registration of births, marriages and deaths in 1837. In 1824 he was appointed physician to the London fever hospital which allowed him to study the diseases caused by poverty.

Edwin Chadwick wrote a report on public health in 1842. The report argued that there was a need to improve living conditions.

Doctor Barnardo set up the first "ragged school"
1848 public health act forced towns with a high death rate to appoint a Medical Officer of Health.

1866 sanitary act / 1875 housing act.

London started building new sewers in 1858.
The government changed its laissez-faire attitude to one of active participation.


Explain the circumstances surrounding this change in social welfare.

William Farr, a civil servant, began to push for accurate
records to be kept regarding births, marriages and deaths.

Thomas Southwood Smith was appointed physician to the London Fever Hospital in 1824. This allowed him to study the diseases spread by poverty.

Edward Chadwick was secretary to the Poor Law
Commissioners. He used statistical methods to investigate the link between ill-health and poverty. He was also the author of the 1842 Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population. This established the link between poor living conditions, disease and life expectancy.


Why did Social Reform face opposition?

Many were reluctant to have the government interfere in their business. In 1854 a letter to the times said "we prefer to take our chance with cholera than be bullied into health".
The prevailing attitude was laissez-faire.