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Flashcards in AA_Molecules Deck (44):
1

How many different R groups are there?

20 different R groups

2

What are the property of R groups?

All chiral except Glycine

3

What are the different category of side chains?

- Hydrophobic
- Hydrophilic

4

What are the different divisions of hydrophobic side chains?

- Aliphatic
- Aromatic

5

What are the different divisions of hydrophilic side chains?

- Polar, uncharged
- Acidic, -ve charged
- Basic, +ve charged

6

Name the small AA

Glycine and Alanine

7

What group does the side chain of Glycine and Alanine fall under?

Hydrophobic, Aliphatic

8

What group does the side chain of Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine fall under?

Hydrophobic, Aliphatic

9

Name the branched chain amino acids

Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine

10

Name the aromatic amino acids

Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Tryptophan

11

What category does the side chain of Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Tryptophan fall under?

Mainly hydrophobic, aromatic

12

Name the sulphur amino acids

Cysteine, Methionine

13

What group does the side chain of Cysteine fall under?

Polar uncharged

14

What group does the side chain of Methionine fall under?

Hydrophobic

15

Name the Acidic amino acids and their derivatives

Aspartate, Asparagine, Glutamate, Glutamine

16

What category does the side chain of Aspartate and Glutamate fall under?

Negatively charged

17

What category does the side chain of Asparagine and Glutamine fall under?

Polar, uncharged

18

Name the basic amino acids

Lysine, Arginine, Histidine

19

What category does the side chain of Lysine, Arginine, Histidine fall under?

Positively charged

20

Name the cyclic amino acid

Proline

21

What are the two types of amino acids?

1) Essential
2) Non - essential (produced by the body)

22

What "other" amino acids is involved in metabolism?

- Ornithine
- Citrulline

23

What is the 21st amino acid?

Selenocysteine

24

What is post translational modifications?

Covalent modification of side chains in protein, usually it is the addition of functional group (e.g. phosphate or carbohydrate -> to help with signalling, structural reasons, catalytic reasons)

25

What is the peptide bond?

When 2 AA link covalently, the bond between them in the peptide bond

26

How is the peptide bond formed?

Condensation

27

What type of reaction are peptide bond formation?

Endergonic (accompanied by or requiring the absorption of energy)

28

What processed need peptide bond?

Peptide bonds are strong covalent bonds which keep the amino acids connected during and after Translation.
Also in ribosomes during translation

29

Do peptide bonds rotate?

No

30

Write the reaction of peptide bond formation.

Draw

31

What is a dipeptide?

Formed by the action between the alpha carbonyl and alpha amino group of two AA.

32

What are the other forms of polypeptides?

Dipeptide
Tripeptide
Oligopeptide
Polypeptide

33

What are polypeptides made from/

Protein and there is an N terminus ("start" - amino terminus) and a C terminus ("end" - carboxyl terminus)

34

What is phosphorylation

Reversible addition of phosphate by protein kinases

35

How are di-sulphide bridges formed?

Formed in a reductive reaction which the two H atoms of the sulfhydryl groups are transferred to an acceptor molecule
- 2 Cysteines link together (can be from same polypeptide or different polypeptide)

36

Where do di-sulphide bridge formation normally take place?

in ER therefore most secreted proteins and membrane proteins have disulphide bonds

37

What are the different structure category of proteins?

1) Primary structure
2) Secondary structure
3) Tertiary structure
4) Quaternary structure

38

What are primary structures?

AA residues

39

What are secondary structures?

alpha helix and beta sheet

40

What are tertiary structures?

polypeptide chain

41

What are quaternary structure?

assembled subunits

42

How are sequence unique to a specific bacteria?

Each has signature sequence

43

How are Amino acid sequence (protein) formed?

Amino acid sequence can be transcribed by DNA sequence (gene)

44

Name the hydroxyl amino acids

Serine and Theronine