Flashcards in AA_Molecules Deck (44):
How many different R groups are there?
20 different R groups
What are the property of R groups?
All chiral except Glycine
What are the different category of side chains?
What are the different divisions of hydrophobic side chains?
What are the different divisions of hydrophilic side chains?
- Polar, uncharged
- Acidic, -ve charged
- Basic, +ve charged
Name the small AA
Glycine and Alanine
What group does the side chain of Glycine and Alanine fall under?
What group does the side chain of Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine fall under?
Name the branched chain amino acids
Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine
Name the aromatic amino acids
Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Tryptophan
What category does the side chain of Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Tryptophan fall under?
Mainly hydrophobic, aromatic
Name the sulphur amino acids
What group does the side chain of Cysteine fall under?
What group does the side chain of Methionine fall under?
Name the Acidic amino acids and their derivatives
Aspartate, Asparagine, Glutamate, Glutamine
What category does the side chain of Aspartate and Glutamate fall under?
What category does the side chain of Asparagine and Glutamine fall under?
Name the basic amino acids
Lysine, Arginine, Histidine
What category does the side chain of Lysine, Arginine, Histidine fall under?
Name the cyclic amino acid
What are the two types of amino acids?
2) Non - essential (produced by the body)
What "other" amino acids is involved in metabolism?
What is the 21st amino acid?
What is post translational modifications?
Covalent modification of side chains in protein, usually it is the addition of functional group (e.g. phosphate or carbohydrate -> to help with signalling, structural reasons, catalytic reasons)
What is the peptide bond?
When 2 AA link covalently, the bond between them in the peptide bond
How is the peptide bond formed?
What type of reaction are peptide bond formation?
Endergonic (accompanied by or requiring the absorption of energy)
What processed need peptide bond?
Peptide bonds are strong covalent bonds which keep the amino acids connected during and after Translation.
Also in ribosomes during translation
Do peptide bonds rotate?
Write the reaction of peptide bond formation.
What is a dipeptide?
Formed by the action between the alpha carbonyl and alpha amino group of two AA.
What are the other forms of polypeptides?
What are polypeptides made from/
Protein and there is an N terminus ("start" - amino terminus) and a C terminus ("end" - carboxyl terminus)
What is phosphorylation
Reversible addition of phosphate by protein kinases
How are di-sulphide bridges formed?
Formed in a reductive reaction which the two H atoms of the sulfhydryl groups are transferred to an acceptor molecule
- 2 Cysteines link together (can be from same polypeptide or different polypeptide)
Where do di-sulphide bridge formation normally take place?
in ER therefore most secreted proteins and membrane proteins have disulphide bonds
What are the different structure category of proteins?
1) Primary structure
2) Secondary structure
3) Tertiary structure
4) Quaternary structure
What are primary structures?
What are secondary structures?
alpha helix and beta sheet
What are tertiary structures?
What are quaternary structure?
How are sequence unique to a specific bacteria?
Each has signature sequence
How are Amino acid sequence (protein) formed?
Amino acid sequence can be transcribed by DNA sequence (gene)