ABA Test #1 Flashcards Preview

EPSY515 Applied Behavioral Analysis > ABA Test #1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in ABA Test #1 Deck (53):
1

Conceptual dimension of ABA

Applied interventions/intervention effects arise from a theoretical base of theory related to learning/conditioning.

2

Applied dimension of ABA

Applied interventions deal with problems of demonstrated social importance.

3

Generality dimension of ABA

Applied interventions are designed to operate in new environments and continue after the formal treatments have ended.

4

Technological dimension of ABA

Applied interventions are described well enough that they can be implemented by anyone with training and resources.

5

Effective dimension of ABA

Must produce changes in behaviour that are large enough and clinically significant.

6

Analytic dimension of ABA

Applied interventions require an objective demonstration that the procedures caused the effect (i.e. IV causes DV)

7

Social Validity dimension of ABA

A measure of appropriateness and satisfaction with ABA goals and intervention - it needs to have social value.

8

Behavioural dimension of ABA

Applied interventions deal with measurable behaviour.

9

What are the two meanings of the term analysis/analytic in ABA

1. Analysing the environment to identify causes of behaviour - i.e. stimuli prompts and consequences that maintain it.

2. Demonstrating that IV is responsible for changes in the DV.

10

What is the Premack Principle?

You can play xbox IF you do your homework first.

i.e. If behaviour B is of a higher probability than behaviour A, then behaviour A can be made more probable by making behaviour B contingent on it.

11

From an ABA perspective, what are some reasons for or causes of behaviour?

- Access to tangible goods
- Attention
- Sensory stimulation
- Escape from a situation
- Reinforcement (or lack of)

What takes the least effort and brings about the most reward.

12

From an ABA perspective, what are some causes for lack of behaviour?

- They are incapacitated
- Lack of reinforcement
- Too small of reinforcement

13

Reinforcement

Relation between response and consequence in which the probability of the response is increased when followed by that consequence

Negative reinforcement - involves taking something bad away e.g. opening the window gets rid of the bad smell

14

Punishment

Relation between response and consequence in which the probability of the response is decreased when followed by that consequence

15

Shaping

Conducted by reinforcing successive approximations to a desired, terminal behaviour.

16

Extinction

Probability of a response decreased if the reinforcer is withheld when the response occurs.

17

Fading

Gradual lessening of prompting or reinforcement. Have to do it at the right time by the right amount.

18

Stimulus control

When a behaviour is emitted more often in the presence of an antecedent than its absence due to reinforcement or extinction.

e.g. red light - stop, green light - go

19

Discrimination training

When R1 is reinforced in presence of SD but if SD is absence, R1 is not enforced.

E.g. lamp example. Lamp on = talk to teacher is reinforced, Lamp off = talk to teacher not reinforced.

20

Chaining

Sequences of individual behaviours that when linked together form a terminal behaviour e.g. brushing teeth. Can be backwards or forwards.

21

Baseline

Condition where IV of interest is not present

22

Intervention

Condition where IV of interest is present

23

Follow-up

When the analyst comes back after a certain period of time to see if the intervention is still having an effect and is being implemented with fidelity.

24

Experimental control

1. can demonstrate functional relationship between IV and DV - can achieve this through ABAB design
2. control of IV by presenting it, drawing it, varying its value, and by eliminating/holding constant all confounding and extraneous variables

25

Law of effect

Behaviour is a function of its consequences. Effects of our actions determine whether we will repeat them.

26

Dependent and Independent Variables

IV - what is going to be changed - the intervention
DV - the resulting behaviour that you are going to measure

27

What are different ways that target behaviours can be defined?

- Talking to the teacher about what the child is doing - or not doing - that is of concern.
- By observing the child in the place/environment where the target behaviour is happening
- Writing up an operational definition of the behaviour that can be observed and measured
- Functional analysis (for example, if the assessment data suggests that a child may be attention seeking with his/her behavior, then the functional analysis will be implemented so that in one condition, the child is given a toy immediately following the challenging behavior but in the comparison condition, the child is given attention immediately following the challenging behavior. )

28

What are different ways that target behaviours can be measured?

Magnitude/Force
Frequency
Latency
Duration
Interresponse time
Percentage correct
Percentage of time
Presence/absence of behaviour
Locus (internal, external)
Topography

29

Stable data

Not much of a change in trend of slope. Indicates stable environment.

30

Ascending data

Starts low and increases at rapid rate.

Could be due to reinforcement

31

Descending data

Starts high and decreases at rapid rate.

Could be extinction yo.

32

Variable data

unpredictable and up and down.

33

Level

Position i.e. low, moderate, high

34

Stability

How stable or variable the data is

35

Overlap

Proportion of data that overlaps from one phase to another phase e.g. baseline to intervention

36

What are the basic theories behind ABA?

- Consequences have predictable but powerful affects on behaviour
- Some behaviours learned or selected for as a result of consequences produced in the past
- Such behaviour is called operant behaviour

37

What are main dimensions of behaviour one might collect data on?

Frequency
Latency
Duration
% correct
% of time
Presence/absence of behaviour

38

What are the main approaches to collecting data on behaviour in ABA?

-Frequency or event recording
Duration recording
Latency
% correct
Time sampling - pre-designated points and notice whether that behaviour occurs at that precise moment
Whole interval - mark whether it happened during the whole interval
Partial interval - mark whether it happened at least once short interval

39

What's the difference between SD(discriminative stimulus) and an S-Delta?

SD signifies that reinforcement is available
S-delta means that reinforcement is not available

40

Natural reinforcer

Results directly from the appropriate behaviour e.g. interacting appropriately with peers will result in them inviting you back again

41

Contrived reinforcer

Aims to get a behaviour to occur in hope that the natural reinforcer will take over -> e.g. me diving at the pool

42

Natural consequences

Consequences that comes directly from the appropriate behaviour

43

Variable ratio

Every xth correct repsonse ON AVERAGE would be reinforced.

Unpredictability of reinforcement maintains student's motivation to respond at a more even rate.

44

Fixed ratio

A fixed number of responses must occur before reinforcement is provided.

FR-1 is after every one, so continuous
FR-3 is every 3rd

Helpful for establishing contingency between behaviour and reinforcement but not uncommon for student to stop responding for a period of time after. Post-refinforcement pause

45

Variable interval

Reinforcement happens after average length of time has elapsed.

46

Fixed interval

Reinforcement happens after a certain length of time has based.

Interval, occurs at lower rate than ratio

Shorter the interval, greater the response. Will increase behaviour only just before interval finishes. So VI is flatter than VR.

47

Graph of ratio and interval

Order VR, FR, VI, FI

48

Effects of different schedules

VR = high and steady response rate e.g. gambling
FR = high response with pauses after reinforcement until next reinforcement e.g. paid after every x items made
VI = Moderate yet steady rate e.g. checking FB
FI = moderate with significant pauses after reinforcement e.g. pain relief - doctor-time and patient controlled

49

Adjunctive behaviour

Seemingly irrelevant behaviour that occur when another behaviour is disrupted.

e.g. stopping at red lights and biting nails to fill in the time.

Displacement behaviours like reading a book when at dentists

Nervous habits to provide relief

50

Operant function

Learned and controlled by environment
Controlled by consequences

51

Experimental-functional analysis

Experimental functional analysis (EFA) is the process of systematically manipulating environmental events to test behavioral hypotheses. It does not involve assessment of behavior in the natural environment. Instead, it includes the artificial manipulation of conditions by professional staff who are not primary caregivers. Essentially, in a functional analysis, experimenters reinforce an individual's problem behavior by presenting the specific reinforcer for a particular condition. The condition that shows the highest frequency/duration of problem behavior represents the primary maintaining variable.

52

Generalisation

Where a behaviour can be taken from the area it is occuring and implemented into all areas of life.

53

What are some causes of depression, OCD, Shizophrenia, Anxiety and memory loss

Depression is mainly biochemical - but can be caused by lack of reinforcement e.g. dog dying for old lady

OCD - biochemical but extinction procedures

Schizophenia - biochemistry yo

Others - yeah, pretty biochemical aye.