Flashcards in ABA Test #1 Deck (53):
Conceptual dimension of ABA
Applied interventions/intervention effects arise from a theoretical base of theory related to learning/conditioning.
Applied dimension of ABA
Applied interventions deal with problems of demonstrated social importance.
Generality dimension of ABA
Applied interventions are designed to operate in new environments and continue after the formal treatments have ended.
Technological dimension of ABA
Applied interventions are described well enough that they can be implemented by anyone with training and resources.
Effective dimension of ABA
Must produce changes in behaviour that are large enough and clinically significant.
Analytic dimension of ABA
Applied interventions require an objective demonstration that the procedures caused the effect (i.e. IV causes DV)
Social Validity dimension of ABA
A measure of appropriateness and satisfaction with ABA goals and intervention - it needs to have social value.
Behavioural dimension of ABA
Applied interventions deal with measurable behaviour.
What are the two meanings of the term analysis/analytic in ABA
1. Analysing the environment to identify causes of behaviour - i.e. stimuli prompts and consequences that maintain it.
2. Demonstrating that IV is responsible for changes in the DV.
What is the Premack Principle?
You can play xbox IF you do your homework first.
i.e. If behaviour B is of a higher probability than behaviour A, then behaviour A can be made more probable by making behaviour B contingent on it.
From an ABA perspective, what are some reasons for or causes of behaviour?
- Access to tangible goods
- Sensory stimulation
- Escape from a situation
- Reinforcement (or lack of)
What takes the least effort and brings about the most reward.
From an ABA perspective, what are some causes for lack of behaviour?
- They are incapacitated
- Lack of reinforcement
- Too small of reinforcement
Relation between response and consequence in which the probability of the response is increased when followed by that consequence
Negative reinforcement - involves taking something bad away e.g. opening the window gets rid of the bad smell
Relation between response and consequence in which the probability of the response is decreased when followed by that consequence
Conducted by reinforcing successive approximations to a desired, terminal behaviour.
Probability of a response decreased if the reinforcer is withheld when the response occurs.
Gradual lessening of prompting or reinforcement. Have to do it at the right time by the right amount.
When a behaviour is emitted more often in the presence of an antecedent than its absence due to reinforcement or extinction.
e.g. red light - stop, green light - go
When R1 is reinforced in presence of SD but if SD is absence, R1 is not enforced.
E.g. lamp example. Lamp on = talk to teacher is reinforced, Lamp off = talk to teacher not reinforced.
Sequences of individual behaviours that when linked together form a terminal behaviour e.g. brushing teeth. Can be backwards or forwards.
Condition where IV of interest is not present
Condition where IV of interest is present
When the analyst comes back after a certain period of time to see if the intervention is still having an effect and is being implemented with fidelity.
1. can demonstrate functional relationship between IV and DV - can achieve this through ABAB design
2. control of IV by presenting it, drawing it, varying its value, and by eliminating/holding constant all confounding and extraneous variables
Law of effect
Behaviour is a function of its consequences. Effects of our actions determine whether we will repeat them.
Dependent and Independent Variables
IV - what is going to be changed - the intervention
DV - the resulting behaviour that you are going to measure
What are different ways that target behaviours can be defined?
- Talking to the teacher about what the child is doing - or not doing - that is of concern.
- By observing the child in the place/environment where the target behaviour is happening
- Writing up an operational definition of the behaviour that can be observed and measured
- Functional analysis (for example, if the assessment data suggests that a child may be attention seeking with his/her behavior, then the functional analysis will be implemented so that in one condition, the child is given a toy immediately following the challenging behavior but in the comparison condition, the child is given attention immediately following the challenging behavior. )
What are different ways that target behaviours can be measured?
Percentage of time
Presence/absence of behaviour
Locus (internal, external)
Not much of a change in trend of slope. Indicates stable environment.
Starts low and increases at rapid rate.
Could be due to reinforcement
Starts high and decreases at rapid rate.
Could be extinction yo.
unpredictable and up and down.
Position i.e. low, moderate, high
How stable or variable the data is
Proportion of data that overlaps from one phase to another phase e.g. baseline to intervention
What are the basic theories behind ABA?
- Consequences have predictable but powerful affects on behaviour
- Some behaviours learned or selected for as a result of consequences produced in the past
- Such behaviour is called operant behaviour
What are main dimensions of behaviour one might collect data on?
% of time
Presence/absence of behaviour
What are the main approaches to collecting data on behaviour in ABA?
-Frequency or event recording
Time sampling - pre-designated points and notice whether that behaviour occurs at that precise moment
Whole interval - mark whether it happened during the whole interval
Partial interval - mark whether it happened at least once short interval
What's the difference between SD(discriminative stimulus) and an S-Delta?
SD signifies that reinforcement is available
S-delta means that reinforcement is not available
Results directly from the appropriate behaviour e.g. interacting appropriately with peers will result in them inviting you back again
Aims to get a behaviour to occur in hope that the natural reinforcer will take over -> e.g. me diving at the pool
Consequences that comes directly from the appropriate behaviour
Every xth correct repsonse ON AVERAGE would be reinforced.
Unpredictability of reinforcement maintains student's motivation to respond at a more even rate.
A fixed number of responses must occur before reinforcement is provided.
FR-1 is after every one, so continuous
FR-3 is every 3rd
Helpful for establishing contingency between behaviour and reinforcement but not uncommon for student to stop responding for a period of time after. Post-refinforcement pause
Reinforcement happens after average length of time has elapsed.
Reinforcement happens after a certain length of time has based.
Interval, occurs at lower rate than ratio
Shorter the interval, greater the response. Will increase behaviour only just before interval finishes. So VI is flatter than VR.
Graph of ratio and interval
Order VR, FR, VI, FI
Effects of different schedules
VR = high and steady response rate e.g. gambling
FR = high response with pauses after reinforcement until next reinforcement e.g. paid after every x items made
VI = Moderate yet steady rate e.g. checking FB
FI = moderate with significant pauses after reinforcement e.g. pain relief - doctor-time and patient controlled
Seemingly irrelevant behaviour that occur when another behaviour is disrupted.
e.g. stopping at red lights and biting nails to fill in the time.
Displacement behaviours like reading a book when at dentists
Nervous habits to provide relief
Learned and controlled by environment
Controlled by consequences
Experimental functional analysis (EFA) is the process of systematically manipulating environmental events to test behavioral hypotheses. It does not involve assessment of behavior in the natural environment. Instead, it includes the artificial manipulation of conditions by professional staff who are not primary caregivers. Essentially, in a functional analysis, experimenters reinforce an individual's problem behavior by presenting the specific reinforcer for a particular condition. The condition that shows the highest frequency/duration of problem behavior represents the primary maintaining variable.
Where a behaviour can be taken from the area it is occuring and implemented into all areas of life.