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Flashcards in Abdo Radiology Deck (33):
1

PET scans useful in what dx?

cancer

2

nuclear medicine uses what?

gamma rays

3

Who is Wilhelm Roentgen?

discovered x-rays in 1895

4

3 things that affect x-ray absorption:

thickness of tissue
density of tissue
Atomic number of tissue

5

increasing Atomic number will increase tissue absorption is by how much

the the 4th power

6

2 ways to improve on x-rays

introduce contrast
increase sensitivity (CT scan)

7

2 kinds of contrast

barium (Atomic 56)
iodine (atomic 53)

8

2 ways of barium into the system

barium meal (hernias)
barium enema (colon carcinoma)

9

What is ERCP?

Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography?

10

What is Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography?

injecting iodine into bile duct through a long ass scope via the mouth

11

What is Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography?

injecting bile duct through the liver using fluroscopy

12

2 places to inject intravascular contrast medium:

intravenous
intraarterial

13

Why use intravascular contrast?

helps see kidney structures

14

Angiography is for what?

visualizing lumen of vessels

15

Intravenous contrast with biliary excretion is for what?

trace path of the billirubin like contrast from hepatocytes into bile ducts then CT it

16

What is the Hounsfield unit?

how much absorption to different tissues, an objective grayscale measuring tool

17

Radioissotope imaging involves what?

injecting intravenous radioisotopes that release gamma rays and recorded on 'camera'

18

Example of radioisotope imaging?

radioisotope attached to bilirubin-like molecule to visualize gall bladder etc.

19

describe the wavelength and frequency of ultrasound

short wavelength
high frequency (3MHz)

20

low or high frequency travels farther?

low

21

How does ultrasound produce image?

records echos derived from known speed of sound in tissues

22

ultrasound doesn't work well through what?

bone and air in lungs

23

doppler is what?

perceived change in frequency due to relative movement of source and observer

24

what is doppler used for?

seeing blood flow velocity

25

MRI uses how many Tesla?

0.3 - 3.0 Tesla

26

1.5 T MRI is how many times earth magnetic field?

30 000 times

27

What is Magnetic Resonance Cholangio-Pancreatography

injecting pancreas vessels with contrast and then MRI image it.

28

MRI relies on what of the atoms?

non-random alignment and spin of Hydrogen atoms usually to get the magnetic moment

29

Can you see the edge of the psoas muscle on x-ray?

yes

30

Do we do barium enemas a lot these days?

Nope. normally endoscopy

31

How much % does portal vein vs. hepatic artery supply the liver?

portal vein: 75%
hepatic artery: 25%

32

What drains the liver? 3 things.

Hepatic Veins
Left
Middle
Right

33

What is the 'newer' divider for left and right liver?

middle hepatic vein to the gall bladder protrusion