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Flashcards in Abdomen Deck (82)
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1

What provides the efferent innervation of the abdominal viscera?

The sympathetic and parasympathetic (autonomic) nervous system.

2

What organs of the GI tract are retroperitoneal?

Most of the duodenum and the ascending and descending colon.

3

What artery supplies the following areas?
1. The small intestine and the right half of the colon
2. The left half of the colon and the superior rectum
3. The upper abdominal structures

1. Superior mesenteric artery
2. Inferior mesenteric artery
3. Celiac artery

4

What spinal level is the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm located at?

T12/L1

5

Does the following pain location get transmitted via the autonomic nervous system or somatic nervous system?
1. Visceral pain
2. Pain from the abdominal wall
3. Pain experienced due to derangements of abdominal viscera
4. Pain from the parietal peritoneum

1. Autonomic
2. Somatic
3. Autonomic
4. Somatic

6

What condition would we consider in an infant with projectile vomiting?

An adult?

Some sort of GI obstruction or hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

Increased ICP

7

What occurs when patients ingest substances that are not well absorbed but have a high osmotic content?

Poor reabsorption of water in the GI tract which leads to diarrhea.

8

What is the difference in time period between acute and chronic diarrhea?

What is the difference in cause?

Acute diarrhea lasts for less than 7 days. Chronic diarrhea lasts for greater than 14 days.

Acute diarrhea is usually caused by toxins or bacteria whereas chronic diarrhea is usually caused by a chronic infection or a pathology of the GI system such as excess hormone secretion or celiac disease.

9

What might clay colored stool indicate?

Obstructive jaundice.

10

How do you define constipation?

Where do most causes of constipation have their origin?

Inabilty to pass stool more frequently than three times per week.

In the colon, rectum, or anus.

11

What is the most common cause of constipation in the elderly?

In neonates?

Pediatric age group?

Colonic obstruction

Imperforate anus and meconium ileus.

Hirchsprung's disease

12

If a patient had a recent surgery and is presenting with jaundice, what may be causing the condition?

What if a patient presents with jaundice and inflammatory bowel disease?

Use of halogenated anesthesia

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (ie. Ulcerative colitis)

13

What three diseases should you think of when presented with an alcoholic?

Pancreatitis, hepatitis, and gastritis.

14

What GI condition causes leukonychia?

Albumin deficiency

15

Dupuytren's contracture?

Alcoholic cirrhosis

16

Clubbing?

UC, GI lymphoma, liver cirrhosis, malabsorption conditions.

17

Palmar erythema?

Liver cirrhosis

18

Palmar crease pigmentation?

Addisons disease

19

Asterixis?

Encephalopathy secondary to renal and liver failure.

20

What can cause parotid enlargement that is associated with the GI tract?

Chronic alcoholism

21

Xanthelasma?

Primary biliary cirrhosis

22

Mucosal pigementation?

Peutz Jegher's syndrome

23

Atrophic glossitis?

Vitamin B12 and iron deficiency

24

Fetor hepaticus?

Liver disease

25

What are the 9 F's which cause protuberance/distension?

Fat, fluid, full bladder, feces, flatus, fetus, false pregnancy, fibroid, fatal tumor.

26

When do paradoxical abdominal movements occur?

When the diaphragm is paralyzed.

27

What is Cullen's sign and what does it indicate?

Bluish discoloration of the umbilicus indicating intraperitoneal bleeding.

28

What is Grey Turner's sign and what does it indicate?

Bluish discoloration of the flanks indicating retroperitoneal bleeding such as seen in hemorrhagic pancreatitis.

29

What direction do superficial veins of the abdomen drain above the umbilicus and below the umbilicus?

Above - upwards
Beow - downwards

30

What causes reversal of this flow?

Inferior vena cava obstruction.