Abdomen Flashcards Preview

Uncategorized > Abdomen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdomen Deck (59):
1

What does a KUB view allow you to see?

Kidney, ureter, bladder
(same as supine)

2

What does the upright view look for?

Free air, air fluid levels in teh bowel

3

What does a prone view allow you to see?

Gas in rectosigmoid

4

What allows you to identify the large bowel?

Peripheral
Haustral markings

5

How does the small bowel appear?

Go all the way across the lumen
Centrally placed
Valvulae markings

6

What are phleboliths?

benign lymph nodes having to do with pelvic veins (small calcified area within a vein)

7

What is when one or emore loops lose their ability to propel the peristalic wave of the bowel?

Ileus

8

What is where Physical, organic, obstructing lesion prevents the passage of intestinal content?

Mechanical obstruction

9

Loops proximal to the obstruction become...

Dilated with air/fluid

10

Loops distal to the obstruction becomes....

decompressed or airless

11

What can prolonged obstruction lead to?

vascular compromise, necrosis, and perforation

12

In a localized ileus, is there gas in the rectum or sigmoid?

Yes

13

People with abdominal or pelvic surgery can often get what?

Generalized adynamic ileus

14

Are there bowel sound with generalized adynamic ileus?

Nope

15

All of these can cause what?
Post surgical adhesions, malignancy, hernia, gallstones, IBS

Mechanical small bowel obstruction

16

When you see "air fluid level" what should you think?

Mechanical small bowel obstruction

17

What is a major clue as to whether there is an obstruction or not?

Gas in recto-sigmoid colon

18

In small or large intestine bowel obstructions are there airfluid levels?

Small intestine obstructions

19

In a large bowel obstruction, when will the small bowel become dilated?

Ileocecal valve become incompetent

20

If a patient has a large bowel obstruction, should you give them oral barium?

No

21

What is the throck morton sign?

The way the penis is pointing is the side of the pathology.

22

What is free air in the abdomen?

Pneumoperitoneum (emergency!)

23

If you can see the wall of the intestine, what does that indicate?

There is air inside and outside
or intestines are looping near one another

24

What does Rigler sign indicate?

pneumoperitoneium

25

What is colonic interposition?

When a piece of colon is between the liver and diaphragm, can be confused with pneumoperitoneum

26

What is another name for biliary air?

Pneumobilia

27

What can cause pneumobilia (biliary air)?

• May be result of surgery
• May be due to incompetent sphincter of Oddi
• Following passage of gallstone

28

Which is more common, pneumobilia or portal venous gas?

Pneumobilia

29

What does portal venous gas have a high association with?

Bowel ischemia
Pneumotosis

30

What is a difference b/w pneumobilia and portal venous gas?

Air is more peripheral in portal venous gas

31

What is air within the wall of the intestine?
Linear or circumferencial lucencies surrdouning the normal bowel gas

Pneumatosis intestinalis

32

In a newborn, what is a cause of pneumatosis intestinalis?

Necrotizing Enterocolitis

33

What are some causes of intestinal ischemia?

Arterial Occlusion/ Stenosis
Emboli
Venous Occlusion from hypercoaguability
Hypoperfusion

34

What are signs of intestinal ischemia in adults?

Bowel distention
bowel wall thickening
Pneumatosis
Portal venous gas

35

What is a way you can see colonic ischemia?

Looks like big thumbs pressed onto the colon
haustral markings start looking thick

36

When can pneumatosis intestinalis be considered a benign finding?

COPD

37

What is a kidney stone that assumes the shape of the kidney collecting duct?

staghorn calculus

38

What is a contrast technique used to evaluate for kidney stones, urinary tract abnormalities,

IVP

39

WHat is a faster technique than IVP that doesn't use contrast that is used to asses for acute renal colic?

CT Urogram

40

Where do a lot of stones get stuck?

Uretero-Vesicular Junction

41

What is a calcification within a vein that can be confused with a kidney stone? Make sure to look at ureter and vein to differentiate.

Phleboliths

42

What helps you differentiate a phlebolith from a kidney stone?

Phleboliths have a central lucency

43

What is the best method to see gallstones?

Ultrasound

44

How does a gallstone appear on US?

Mobile echogenic focus with posterior acoustical shadowing

45

What is gas in the gallbladder wall?

Emphysematous Cholecystitis

46

What do Pancreatic Calcifications usually indicate?

Chronic pancreatitis

47

When is a small bowel considered dilated?

Small bowel > 3 cm

48

When is the large bowel considered dilated?

Large bowel > 5 cm

49

When is there an impending perf?

>10 cm dilated

50

What is the triad of a gallstone ileus?

o Biliary Gas
o SBO
o Calcified Gallstone

51

In adults what normally causes Intussusception?

Tumor (leads the process)

52

What is the most common obstruction b/w 3-6 years of age?

Intussusception

53

What is the most common site of Intussusception ?

Ileocolic

54

What is a sign that indicates intussusception?

Crescent sign

55

What is one of the things used to treat intussusception?

Barium enema used to push it back

56

What are common causes of colonic obstruction?

Colon cancer
Volvulus
Diverticulitis
Fecal Impaction

57

What are the two major types of volvulus of the colon?

Sigmoid and Cecal

58

Who normally have volvulus of the colon?

Elderly and/or debilitated patients

59

Do adhesions need surgical intervention?

No- they are usually partial and resolve spontaneously