Abdomen/ Pelvis & Perioneum Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abdomen/ Pelvis & Perioneum Deck (150):
1

What bony structure ends anteriorly as the ASIS?

Iliac crest

2

What bony structure serves as attachment for rectus femoris muscle?

AIIS

3

Where does the ilium and pubis come together?

Iliopubic eminence

4

What bony structure leads into the pubic crest?

Pubic tubercle

5

What bony structure ends medially at the pubis symphysis?

Pubic crest

6

What five body planes serve as the boundries of the quadrants and regions of the abdomen? (x5)

Midclavicular
Subcostal
Median (Midsagittal)
Transumbilical
Transtubercular

7

What body plane occurs at the L4 level? What is a good bony landmark feature for this plane?

Transumbliclal plane--it lies through the superiro border of the iliac crests

8

What body plane lies at midway between the iliac crest and ASIS? What vertebral level does it occur at?

Transtubercular plane--L5 level

9

How many abdominal regions are there? What are they?

9--epigastric (with R and L hypochondriac)
umbilical (with R and L lumbar)
hypogastric (with R and L inguinal)

10

How many abdominal quadrants are there?

4--R and L upper and R and L lower

11

What planes form the regions of the abdomen?

Midclavicular, subcostal, and transtubercular planes

12

What planes form the abdominal quadrants?

Median and transumbilical planes

13

What organ is found in all four quadrants?

Colon

14

What is found in the RUQ (right upper quadrant)? (x10)

Right lobe of liver
Gallbladder
Stomach (pylorus)
Duodenum (parts 1-3)
Head of pancreas
Right suprarenal gland
Right lidney
Right colic (hepatic) flexure
Ascending colon (superior part)
Transverse colon (right half)

15

What is found in the LUQ? (x10)

Left lobe of liver
Spleen
Stomach
Jejunum and proximal ileum
Pancreas (body and tail)
Left kidney
Left suprarenal gland
Left colic (splenic) fissure
Transverse colon (left half)
Descending colon (superior part)

16

What is found in the RLQ? (x10)

Cecum
Veriform appendix
Most of ileum
Ascending colon (inferior part)
Right ovary
Right uterine tube
Right ureter (abdominal part)
Right spermatic cord (abdominal part)
Uterus (if enlarged)
Bladder (if very full)

17

What is found in the LLQ? (x8)

Sigmoid colon
Descending colon (inferior part)
Left ovary
Left uterine tube
Left ureter (abdominal part)
Left spermatic cord (left part)
Uterus (if enlarged)
Bladder (if very full)

18

What are the nine layers of the abdominal wall (superficial to deep)? (x11)

Skin
Campers fascia
Scarpa's fascia
External oblique muscle
(deep fascia)
Internal oblique muscle
(deep fascia)
Transversalis muscle
(transversalis fascia)
Endoabdominal (extrapertioneal) fat
Parietal peritoneum

19

What is the superficial layer of fascia (and fat) that lies just deep to the skin of the abdomin?

Camper's fascia

20

What is the deep membranous layer of superficial fascia?

Scarpa's fascia

21

What type of fascia sits around all the muscles?

Deep investing fascia of the muscles

22

What are the five muscles of the anterior abdominal wall?

Transverse abdominus
Internal abdominal oblique
External abdominal oblique
Rectus abdominalis
Pyramidalis

23

How do the fibers of the external oblique run?

Superiomedial (makes a "v" shape)

24

How do the fibers of the internal oblique run (as compared to the external oblique)?

Almost perpendicular to the external oblique

25

What is important about the fiber orientation of the internal and external oblique muscles?

Their overlapping creates a strong layer of muscle.

26

True or false:
The pyramidalis is not present in everyone.

True

27

Where is the pyramidalis found?

It's found along the midline right above the groin and at the end of the rectus abdominalis; its a very small muscle

28

What is the origin, insertion, action, and innervation of the external oblique?

O: external surfaces of 5th-12th ribs
I: Linea alba, pubic tubercle, & ant. half of iliac crest
A: Compress & support abdominal viscera; flex and rotate trunk
N: thoracoabdominal nerves (T6-subcostal)

29

What is the origin, insertion, action, and innervation of the internal oblique muscle?

O: thoracolumbar fascia, anterior 2/3 of iliac crest, & lateral half of inguinal ligament
I: inferior borders of 10-12th ribs, linea alba, and pecten pubis via conjoint tendon
A: compress & support abdominal viscera; flex and rotate the trunk
N: thoracoabdominal (ventral rami of inferior 6 thoracic nerves) & L1

30

What is the origin, insertion, action, and innervation of the transverse abdominal muscle?

O: internal surfaces of 7-12th costal cartilages, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, & lateral 1/3 of inguinal ligament
I: linea alba with aponeurosis of internal oblique, pubic crest, and pecten pubis via conjoint tendon
A: compress & support abdominal viscera
N: thoracoabdominal (ventral rami of inferior 6 thoracic nerves) & L1

31

What is the origin, insertion, action, and innvervation of the rectus abdominalis muscle?

O: pubic symphysis and pubic crest
I: xiphoid process and 5-7th costal cartilages
A: flexes trunk (lumbar vertebrae) and compresses abdominal viscera
N: thoracoabdominal nerves (ventral rami of inferior 6 nerves)

32

What two arteries run in the rectus sheath?

Superior and inferior epigastric arteries

33

What is the superior epigastric artery a continuation of?

Internal thoracic (mamillary) artery

34

When does the internal thoracic (mamillary) artery become the superior epigastric artery?

When it reaches the subcostal region (right under the ribs)

35

Where can the superior epigastric artery be found?

Deep to the rectus abdominalis muscle

36

Where does the inferior epigastric artery enter the rectus sheath?

Arcuate line

37

What is the arcuate line? Where is it located?

The inferior edge of the posterior rectus sheath (located about halfway between the umbilicus and the pubic crest)

38

What does the arcuate line represent?

The end of the posterior rectus sheath--below the arcuate line, there is a transition so that all but the transversalis fascia pass anterior to rectus abdominis.

39

What do the folds of the parietal peritoneum form? (x3)

Umbilical ligaments (median, medial, and lateral)

40

What is the median umbilical ligament formed by?

Urachus (reminent of tissue that joined the fetal bladder to the umbilicus)

41

What is the medial umbilical ligament formed by?

Occulded part of umbilical arteries

42

What is the laterla umbilical ligament formed by?

Covering of the inferior epigastric vessels

43

List the umbilical ligaments form most medial to lateral.

Median Umbilicus -> Medial Umbilicus -> Lateral Umbilicus

44

True or false:
There are depressions formed by the umbilical ligaments in between them.

True--there are 3.

45

What are the three depressions formed by the umbilical ligaments?

Supravesicular fossa
Medial inguinal fossa
Lateral inguinal fossa

46

Where does the supravesicular fossa lie? What is located here?

Between the median and medial umbilicus ligaments. The bladder is located here.

47

Where does the medial inguinal fossa lie? What can occur here?

Between the medial and lateral umbilical ligaments; direct hernia

48

Where does the lateral inguinal fossa lie? What can happen here?

Lateral to the lateral umbilical ligament; indirect hernia

49

What is the urachus?

The remnant of the tissue that once joined the fetal bladder to the umbilicus

50

Above the arcuate line, what forms the anterior layer of the rectus sheath? Posterior layer?

Anterior= membrane of external & internal oblique muscles
Posterior= membrane of the internal oblique and the transvers abdominus muscles

51

Below the arcuate line, what forms the posterior layer of the rectus sheath?

Anterior= membrane of the external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominus muscles
Posterior= there is no posterior layer of rectus sheath below the arcuate line

52

Where do the external and internal obliques cross over to continue as the opposite muscle?

In the linea alba (above the arcuate line)

53

How do the external and internal oblique muscles produce rotation?

The external oblique on one side hits the aponeurosis and dives deep to continue as the oppostie internal oblique...so the internal oblique rotates the body to the same side and the external oblique rotates the body to the opposite side

54

What is the inguinal canal?

A canal (passageway) through the anterior abdominal wall. It is the most inferior border of the abdominal wall.

55

What is the inguinal canal formed by? What is it's starting and end points?

The "rolling" or arching of fibers of the abdominal wall and muscles. It begins as the deep inguinal ring (where is begins internally) and ends as the superficial inguinal ring (where it ends externally)

56

What does the inguinal canal transmit? (x3) What does it do for males vs females?

It trasmits the spermatic cord, round ligament of the uterus, and the ilioinguinal nerve (L1);
For males, it allows a passageway for the spermatic cord
For females, it connects the uterus to the labia major

57

What constitutes the forgut?

Alimentary canal (digestive tract) up to the proximal 1/3 of the duodenum

58

What constitutes the midgut?

From the 1/3 of the duodenum to the 2/3 of the transverse colon

59

What constitutes the hindgut?

2/3 of the transverse colon through the rectum (it begins just before the colon flecture

60

List all the structures of the foregut. (x8)

Pharynx,
Esophagus
Stomach
Proximal 1/3 of duodenum
Accessory organs (liver, gallbladder, pancreas, & spleen)

61

List all the structures of the midgut. (x6)

Distal 2/3 of the duodenum,
jejunum,
ileum,
ascending colon,
appendix,
proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon

62

List all the structures of the hindgut. (x4)

Distal 1/3 of the transverse colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid colon
Rectal canal

63

What are all the forgut structures below the diaphragm supplied arterially by?

Celiac afrtery

64

How does the foregut receive its sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation?

Sympathetic= greater thoracic splanchnic nerve (T5-T9)
Parasympathetic= vagus nerve

65

What supplies the midgut arterially?

Superior mesenteric artery

66

How does the midgut receive its sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation?

Sympathetic= Lesser (T10-T11) and least thoracic splanchnic nerves (T12)
Parasympathetic= vagus nerve

67

What supplies the hindgut arterially?

Inferior mesentaric artery

68

How does the hindgut receive its sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation?

Sympathetic= lumbar and sacral splanchnic nerves
Parasympathetic= pelvic splanchnic nerves

69

What is the celiac trunk a branch of? What are its three branches?

The descending aorta;
1- left gastric artery
2-splenic artery
3- common hepatic artery

70

Off the celiac trunk, where does the left gastric artery go and do?

Heads towards the lesser curvature of the stomach where it anastomoses with the right gastric artery on the lesser curvature of the stomach

71

Where does the splenic artery pass in relationship to the stomach? Where is it heading?

Posterior to the stomach as it heads to the spleen

72

What does the common hepatic artery terminate as?

Hepatic proper artery and the gastroduodenal artery

73

Where does the hepatic proper artery head to?

The liver

74

Where does the gastroduodenual artery head? What does it supply?

Inferiorly...it supplies the stomach and duodenum

75

What does the superior mesenteric artery supply?

Midgut

76

What does the inferior mesenteric artery supply?

Hindgut

77

What two arteries form an anastomosis around the large intestine? What is this anastomosis called?

Superior and inferior mesenteric arteries...its called the "marginal artery of drummen"

78

What nerve synapses in the celiac ganglia?

Greater thoracic splanchnic nerve

79

What nerve synapses in the superior mesenteric ganglia?

Lesser thoracic splanchnic nerve

80

What nerve synapses in the aorticorenal ganglia?

Least thoracic splanchnic nerve

81

True or false:
Sympathetic fibers hitchhike on the vasculature of the abdomen.

True

82

Where does the vagus nerve synapse?

In the walls of the organs--it doesn't synapse in the ganglia

83

What is the name of the ganglia and sympathetic fibers that are found between the two mesenteric arteries on the aorta?

Intermesenteric Ganglia and fibers

84

Is there an inferior mesenteric ganglia

Yes--just like the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries

85

Where can the hypogastric plexus be found?

Where the aorta splits into the left and right iliac arteries

86

What does the aorta split into?

Left and right iliac arteries

87

What is the name of the splanchnics that leave the chain ganglia in the lumbar region?

Lumbar splanchnic nerves

88

Are the celiac, superior mesenteric, intermesenteric, and inferior mesenteric ganglias considered prevertebral or paravertebral?

Prevertebral

89

What is the greater omentum?

A fatty-like double, double layer of periotenum

90

What does the greater omentum hang off of?

The curvature off the stomach (like an apron--hence "Omental apron")

91

What does the greater omentum cover?

Most of the intestines

92

Since the greater omentum is a double, double layer, where does the two double layers hang off of?

-Lesser curvature of the stomach
-Transverse colon

93

What suspends the digestive tract to the walls of the body?

Dorsal and ventral mesentaries--they help anchor the digestive tract to the wall of the body

94

Where is the abdominal cavity truly located?

Between the visceral peritoneum and the digestive tract

95

Where is the peritoneal cavity located?

Between the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum

96

What condition occurs when there is a collection fluid in the peritoneal cavity?

Ascites

97

What does the dorsal bud of the foregut during embryology become eventually?

Dorsal pancreas

98

What does the ventral bud of the foregut during embryology become eventually?

Liver, galbladder, and ventral pancreas

99

What do the differential growth and rotations of the digestive tract cause the dorsal and ventral mesentaries to do? What does this form?

Reflect back upon themselves forming the double peritoneal layers (called ligaments or folds)

100

How are the peritoneal ligaments and folds named?

For the visceral organs in which they span across (i.e. lienogastric (spleen & stomach), lienorenal, gastrophrenic, gastrocolic, phrenicocolic ligaments)

101

Describe the way in which the greater and lesser and "J" curve of the stomach is formed.

As the GI tract begins to outcrop, the foregut takes a 90 degree turn and the stomach turns in 90 degrees. Then the dorsal end of the stomach curves upward (creating the "J" shape). As the stomach is curving up, it drags the ventral mesentary up with it, creating that double, double layer of the omentum

102

What is the omental sac? How can you get into this space?

The space formed when the stomach curves up to make the greater ommentum--you can get here through the foramen of Winslow

103

What does the lesser omentum run between?

The liver and the stomach

104

What helps suspend the small intestine (looks like little fatty pouches on it)?

Mesentary (mesentary proper)

105

What from embryology becomes the lesser omentum?

Ventral mesentary

106

What from embryology becomes the greater omentum?

Dorsal mesentary

107

What helps to suspend the transverse colon?

Transverse mesocolon

108

What does the greater omentum run between?

Stomach and transverse colon

109

Since the greater omentum is a double, double layer, what does the anterior layer of the omentum cover? The posterior layer?

Anterior= stomach
Posterior= transverse colon

110

What is the potential space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum that contains a film of fluid?

Peritoneal cavity

111

Is the peritoneal cavity closed or open in males? Females?

Males= closed
Females= open via the fallopian tubes

112

What is the peritoneal cavity divided into?

The greater sac and lesser sac

113

What is the greater sac of the peritoneal cavity?

From the diaphragm to the pelvic floor

114

What is the lesser sac? What does it contain?

**THE OMENTAL BURSA**
It is the space behind the stomach, liver, and lesser omentum...it contains the superior recess, the inferior recess, the splenic reess, and the opening to the greater sac via the epiploic foramen of winslow

115

What are the intraperitoneal structures? (x9)

Stomach
Part of Duodenum
Jejuneum
Ilieum
Appendix
Transverse colon
Sigmoid colon
Spleen
Liver

116

What lines the posterior wall of the peritoneum?

The mesocolon

117

What does it mean if an organ is considered retropertioneal?

It lies behind the peritoneum

118

What does it mean if an organ is considered secondarily retropertinoneal structure?

That is began as a intraperitoneal structure during embryonic development but then became retroperitonteal

119

When do the secondarily retroperitoneal organs transition from intraperitoneal to retroperitoneal?

When the viscera's posterior (visceal) layer fuses with the parietal peritoneum

120

What organs are considered retroperitoneal? (x5)

Kidney
Ureters,
Adrenal Glands
Inferior vena cava
Aorta and its arterial branches

121

What does it mean if an organ is considered retroperitoneal?

They have always been located between the peritoeum--and they have never had a double layer of peritoneum

122

What organs are considered secondarily retroperitoneal? (x6)

Pancreas,
Distal portion of duodenum
Cecum
Ascending and descending colons
Rectum

123

True or false:
Secondarily retroperitoneal organs only have layers of peritoneal coverings on their anterior and posterior aspects.

False--they only have it on the anterior and later aspects--they lie behind the peritoneal cavity and thereore they do not have any peritoneal coverings on the backside surfaces

124

At about what vertebral level is the superior hypogastric plexus located? Anteriorly where is it located?

L3/L4; at the bifurcation of the aorta.

125

What does the superior hypogastric plexus give rise to?

Left and right hypogastric nerves

126

What does the left and right hypogastric nerves give rise to?

Inferior hypogastric plexus

127

From what levels does the pelvic splanchnics arrise from?

S2-S4

128

What are the functions of the liver? (x3)

Detox blood
Storage glycogen, vitamins, and iron
Produce and secrete bile

129

What ligament is found in the falciform ligament?

Ligamentum teres hepaticus (round ligament of the liver)

130

What is the round ligament of the liver (ligamentum teres hepaticus)?

The obliterated umbilical vein that ran through the falciform ligament

131

What are the components of the portal triad?

Portal vein
Hepatic artery
Bile duct

132

What is the coronary ligament?

The coronary ligament of the liver is the reflection of peritoneum that attaches the liver to the diaphragm

133

What is the bare area of the liver?

The area that does not have any visceral peritoneum...this is because the coronary ligament reflects upward to the diaphragm

134

What are the four portions of the liver?

Right lobe
Left lobe
Caudate lobe (posterior)
Quadrate lobe (anterior)

135

What is the caudate lobe of the liver adjacent to? The quadrate lobe?

Inferior vena cave; gall bladder

136

What does the falicform ligament do?

Helps anchor the liver to the abdominal wall

137

In relationship to the liver regions, where does the IVC run?

Between the caudate and right lobes

138

What is the general shape the fissures of the liver make? What makes up this shape?

"H"
-ligementum teres hepaticus
-ligamentum venosum
-fossa for the gallbladder
-inferior vena cava fissure
-porta hepatis

139

What does the ligamentum teres hepaticus run between?

Left and quadrate lobes

140

What does the ligamentum venosum run between? What is significant about this ligament?

Left and caudate lobes...it is interesting that it is the remnant of the ductus venosum in the fetus (used to shunt blood away from the liver)

141

Where is the fossa for the gall bladder on the liver?

Between the right and quadrate lobes

142

Where is the fissure for the IVC on the liver?

Between the right and caudate lobes

143

Where is the porta hepatis?

The horizontal portion of the liver fissures

144

What is the innervation to the liver?

Sympathetic= celiac & superior mesenteric ganglia
Parasympathetic= vagal trunks

145

What is the blood supply to the liver?

Common hepatic artery (from the celiac trunk off the descending aorta) -> hepatic proper -> right and left hepatic arteries

146

True or false:
The spleen is found dorsal to the stomach.

True...the spleen is also a intraperitoneal structure

147

What are the functions of the spleen? (x4)

**Part of lymphatic system
Produces blood cells early in life
Destructs blood cells later in life
Filters blood
Also produces lymphocytes and antibodies

148

What two ligaments supports the spleen in the peritoneal cavity?

The lienogastic and lineorenal ligaments

149

What is the sympathetic innervation to the spleen? Parasympathetic?

Sympathetic= celiac and superior mesenteric ganglia
Parasympathetic= vagal trunks

150

What is the blood supply to the spleen?

Splenic artery (comes off celiac trunk) via the hepatic artery?