Abdomen/ Pelvis & Perioneum (Part II) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abdomen/ Pelvis & Perioneum (Part II) Deck (26):

What are the four main muscles of the posterior abdominal wall?

Quadratus lumborum
Psoas major and minor


How does the psoas minor present in the cadaver?

As a long shiny tendon that runs to the pubis (it also runs over the psoas major)


True or false:
The anterior abdominal wall muscles also extend to the posterior abdominal wall. What are these muscles?

-these muscles are the transverse abdominalis, internal oblique and external oblique


What are the three arcuate ligaments of the posterior abdominal wall?

Three little arches that are formed by the diaphragm. They form a passageway for certain structures.
They are the median, medial, and lateral arcuate ligaments


What does the median arcuate ligament form and allow passage of?

The aortic hiatus...it allows for the passage of the aorta,, thoracic duct, greater thoracic splanchnic nerve and azygos vein


What does the medial arcuate ligament allow for the passage of? Where is this ligament found?

Sympathetic trunk, psoas muscle and iliophyogastric nerve; sits on top of the psoas major


What does the lateral arcuate ligament allow for the passage of? Where is this ligament found?

Quadratus lumborum muscle and subcostal nerve; sits on top of the quadratus lumborum muscle.


Name the three arcuate ligaments in order from medial to lateral and what forms them.

Median= tendinous arch of the R and L crus of diaphragm
Medial= fascia of psoas muscle fro L1 body to TVP
Lateral= fascia of QL from TVP of L1 to 12th rib


What group of nerves is formed within the psoas major muscle?

Lumbar plexus


What forms the lumbar plexus?

Ventral primary rami of L1-L4


What forms the lumbosacral trunk? What does it contribute to?

The union of part of the ventral primary rami of L4 and part of the ventral primary rami of L5...this contributes to the sacral plexus


What are the cord levels for the 8 nerves of the lumbar plexus and the lumbosacral trunk?

Subcostal= T12
Iliohypogastric= L1
Ilioinguinal= L1
Genitofemoral= L1-L2
Lateral Femoral Cutatneous=L2-L3
Femoral= L2-L4
Obturator= L2-L4
(Accessory Obturator)= L2-L4
Lumbosacral trunk= L4-L5


Where does the subcostal nerve exit?

Lateral arcuate ligament


Where does the iliohypogastric (L1) nerve run? What does it pierce?

Pierces the transverse abdominalis and then runs between the internal and external obliques


Where does the ilioinguinal (L1) nerve run? What does it go through?

It goes the inguinal canal (enters deep inguinal ring and exits superficial ring) and initially runs between the internal oblique and transverse abdominalis but then it runs between the internal and external obliques


Where does the genitofemoral (L1-L2) nerve run?

In front of the psoas major muscle...it then splits and the femoral portion runs to the anterior thigh and the genital portion runs to the labia or scrotal area


Where does the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (L2-L3) run?

Exits lateral to the psoas muscle and then runs over the iliacus muscle


Where does the obturator nerve (L2-L4) run?

It passes into the medial thigh to innervate the adductors....it exits through the obturator foramen


Where would the obturator accessory nerve (L2-L4) run is present?

Just lateral to the obturator nerve


Where does the femoral nerve run?

Lateral and posterior to the psoas major muscle


What are the paired arteries of the posterior abdominal wall coming off the aorta? How many are there?

There are 6
-inferior phrenic (course up to feed the diaphragm)
-superior adrenal (suprarenal) that come off the inferior phrenic
-renal arteries (found at the hilum of the kidney)
-gonadal (ovarian or testicular)
-4-5 pairs of lumbar (segmental) arteries
-common iliac artery


What do the lumbar (segemental) arteries do?

Help feed the posterior abdominal wall and may also help feed the IVDs and spinal cord


What do the common iliac arteries split into? What do those then do from there?

Common iliac splits into the external and internal iliac arteries. The external becomes the femoral artery and the internal dives deep to give off branches to the pelvic viscera


What is special about the left renal vein?

It has to run across the aorta in order to reach the IVC


What is the main collecting duct of the abdominal lymphatic system?

Cisterna chyli


Where is the cisterna chyli located?

The the very end of the thoracic duct...about at the level of the kidneys, and posterior and slightly to the right of the abominal aorta