Abdominal Viscera and Collateral Circulation Flashcards Preview

Structure and Function Test 1 > Abdominal Viscera and Collateral Circulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdominal Viscera and Collateral Circulation Deck (102):
1

Space bounded by abdominal walls, diaphragm and pelvis within which lie the greater part of the
digestive organs, spleen, kidneys, and suprarenal glands

Abdominal cavity

2

What are the two subdivisions of the abdominal cavity?

1.) Greater peritoneal sac
2.) Lesser peritoneal sac

3

Includes all of the peritoneal cavity except for the omental bursa

Greater peritoneal sac

4

The greater peritoneal sac can be subdivided into the

Supracolic and infracolic compartments

5

The boundary between the supracolic and infracolic compartments is the

Transverse mesocolon and greater omentum (which are fused together)

6

The supracolic compartment contains the

Stomach, liver, and spleen

7

The infracolic compartment contains the

Small intestine, ascending colon, and descending colon

8

The part of the peritoneal cavity posterior to the stomach, lesser omentum, and gastrosplenic ligament

Lesser Peritoneal Sac (omental bursa)

9

The lesser sac communicates with the greater sac via the

Omental foramen (epiploic foramen or foramen of winslow)

10

What is the anterior border of the omental foramen?

Portal vein, proper hepatic artery, and common bile duct

11

What is the posterior boundary of the omental foramen

Inferior vena cava and right crus of the diaphragm

12

What is the SUPERIOR boundary of the omental foramen

Caudate lobe of the liver

13

What is the INFERIOR boundary of the omental foramen

First part of the duodenum

14

A double layer of peritoneum connecting abdominal wall to a viscus

-contains neurovascular structures andlymphatics

Mesentery

15

Mesenteries serve as a bridge between

Parietal and Visceral peritoneum

16

Mesentery may be given a name specific to the organ it is attached to. What is the name of the mesentery attached to the:
1.) Stomach
2.) Small intestine
3.) Appendix

1.) Mesogastrium
2.) Mesentery proper
3.) Mesoappendix

17

Mesentery may be given a name specific to the organ it is attached to. What is the name of the mesentery attached to the:
1.) Sigmoid colon
2.) Transverse colon

1.) Sigmoid mesocolon
2.) Transverse mesocolon

18

Double layer of peritoneum connecting two viscera or viscus and abdominal wall

Peritoneal ligament

19

A subcategory of ligament connecting stomach to another organ

Omentum

20

What do the following omentum connect?
1.) Gastrohepatic (part of lesser omentum)
2.) Hepatoduodenal (part of lesser omentum)

1.) Liver and stomach
2.) Liver and duodenum

21

What do the following omentum connect?
1.) Gastrosplenic (part of greater omentum)
2.) Gastrocolic (part of greater omentum)
3.) Splenorenal

1.) Stomach and spleen
2.) Stomach and transverse colon
3.) Spleen and posterior abdominal wall

22

The foregut (esophagus, stomach, proximal portion of duodenum) is supplied by the

Celiac trunk

23

The celiac trunk gives rise to the

Common hepatic, left gastric, and splenic arteries

24

The midgut is supplied by the

Superior mesenteric artery

25

The hindgut is supplied by the

Inferior mesenteric artery

26

Venous return to the digestive tract is to the

Hepatic portal system (NO valves)

27

Drains embryonically peritoneal organs (i.e. adult peritoneal and adult secondary retroperitoneal)

Hepatic Portal Vein

28

Drains embryonically retroperitoneal organs (i.e. adult primary retroperitoneal)

Inferior Vena Cava

29

There are 4 anastomoses in the portal system. The left gastric vein anastomoses with the

Azygos vein (esophageal varices)

30

There are 4 anastomoses in the portal system. The superior rectal veins anastomose with the

Inferior and middle rectal veins (internal hemorrhoids)

31

There are 4 anastomoses in the portal system. The Paraumbilical veins anastomose with the

Epigastric veins (caput medusae)

32

There are 4 anastomoses in the portal system. The colic veins anastomose with the

Retroperitoneal veins

33

Tend to follow the vascular system

Lymphatic pathways

34

Interposed in the lymphatic channels

Lymph nodes

35

Pattern of lymphatic drainage determines lymphatic spread of

Epithelial malignancies

36

Conduit for food

Abdominal esophagus

37

Function in digestion

Stomach and duodenum

38

Function in absorption

Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)

39

Functions in the resorption of water and storage of stool

Colon

40

Biliary tree and pancreas contribute substances which aid

Digestion

41

Metabolically processes nutrients

Liver

42

The abdominal esophagus passes through the esophageal hiatus in the right crus of the diaphragm at the

T10 level

43

The abdominal esophagus enters the stomach at the

Cardial orifice

44

The esophagus is encircled by the

Esophageal nerve plexus

45

Retroperitoneal, and is made up of external longitudinal and internal circular layers of smooth muscle

Esophagus

46

The esophagus is attached to margins of diaphragmatic hiatus by the

Phrenicoesophageal ligament

47

What is the arterial supply of the esophagus?

Left gastric and left inferior phrenic artery

48

The esophagus has dual venous drainage. What are the two drainage paths?

1.) Left gastric vein to portal system
2.) Esophageal veins to azygos vein (systemic system)

49

What are the two types of esophageal hernias?

1.) Sliding type
2.) Paraesophageal type

50

Type of hiatus hernia involving the abdominal esophagus, cardia, and parts of the fundus in the thorax

Sliding type

51

Type of hiatus hernia involving the fundus in the thorax, but the cardia is in normal position

Paraesophageal type

52

Hiatus hernia with regurgitation

Sliding type

53

Hiatus hernia with no regurgitation

Paraesophageal type

54

What are the four parts of the stomach

1.) Cardia
2.) Fundus
3.) Body
4.) Pyloric

55

The pyloric part of the stomach is made up of the

Antrum, Canal, and Pylorus

56

What are the borders of the stomach

Lesser curvature (concave) and Greater curvature (convex)

57

The interior of the stomach contains

Rugae (longitudinal ridges)

58

What is the arterial supply to the stomach?

Left gastric, right gastric, right gastro-omental, and short gastric

59

The venous drainage of the stomach and duodenum is via the

Portal system

60

Partially retroperitoneal and commences at the pylorus

Duodenum

61

Takes a C-shaped course around the head of the pancreas

Duodenum

62

What are the four parts of the duodenum?

1.) Superior
2.) Descending
3.) Horizontal
4.) Ascending

63

The superior duodenum is anterolateral to the body of L1 and the first two centimeters are a peritoneal part called the

Ampulla

64

Where the bile and pancreatic ducts enter at junction of foregut and midgut

Descending duodenum

65

Passes anterior to IVC, aorta, and L3 vertebra and posterior to SMA, SMV, root of mesentery

Horizontal duodenum

66

In the ascending colon, a duodenojejunal junction is supported by a suspensory muscle of the duodenum known as the

Ligament of Treitz

67

What is the arterial supply of the duodenum?

Three Anastomoses between the foregut and midgut

68

Marks the transition point between the foregut and midgut

Bile duct

69

There are three anastomoses in the duodenum. The gastroduodenal anastomoses with the

Anterior and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries

70

There are three anastomoses in the duodenum. The superior mesenteric artery anastomoses with the

Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (divides into anterior and posterior branches)

71

What are the functional lobes of the liver?

1.) left (including quadrate and caudate)
2.) Right

72

What are the 4 ligaments of the liver?

1.) Falciform
2.) Ligamentum teres (obliterated umbilical vein)
3.) Coronary
4.) Triangular

73

What are the 2 sources of blood to the liver?

1.) Hepatic artery (systemic, 30%)
2.) Portal vein (70%)

74

What are the branches of the proper hepatic artery?

Right gastric, right and left hepatic, and cystic

75

What are the subdivisions of the gallbladder?

Fundus, body, and neck (contains spiral valve)

76

Receives its blood supply from the cystic artery (usually a branch of the right hepatic system)

Gallbladder

77

Crosses through the cystohepatic triangle (triangle of calot)

Cystic Artery

78

Originates as dorsal and ventral buds and is made up of a head, uncinate process, neck, body, and tail

Pancreas

79

What are 4 pancreatic ducts?

1.) Minor pancreatic duct (of Santorinin)
2.) Common Bile duct
3.) Hepatopancreatic Ampulla (of Vater)
4.) Major Pancreatic duct (of Wirsung)

80

The blood supply to the head and neck of the pancreas is from the

Superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries

81

The blood supply to the body and tail of the pancreas is from the

Splenic artery

82

Collateral circulation between celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery

Pancreaticoduodenal arteries

83

"The largest lymph node in the body"

-not part of the alimentary tract

Spleen

84

What are the relations of the spleen
1.) Anteriorly
2.) Posteriorly
3.) Inferiorly
4.) Medially

1.) Stomach
2.) Diaphragm
3.) Left colic flexure
4.) Left kidney and tail of pancreas

85

What are the ligamentous attachments of the spleen?

-both derived from dorsal mesentery

Gastrosplenic and splenorenal ligaments

86

The only blood supply to the spleen

-no anastomoses

Splenic artery

87

Fan-shaped mesentery extending diagonally from left upper quadrant to right lower quadrant

-6-7 meters long

Jejunum and illeum

88

Redder, thicker walled, and more vascular, with longer vasa recta, larger and fewer arcades, and fewer lymphoids nodules (Peyer's Patches)

Jejuum

89

Supplied by the superior mesenteric artery, which gives the jejunal and ileal arteries

Jejunum and ileum

90

The jejunum and ileum are drained by the superior mesenteric vein which drains into the

Portal vein

91

What are 3 external features of the large intestine?

1.) Taeniae coli
2.) Haustra (sacculations)
3.) Omental appendices

92

Has a wide diameter in cecum, narrowing distally as far as rectosigmoid junction

Large intestine

93

Three bands of longitudinal smooth muscle

Taeniae coli

94

Fatty tags

-subserosal

Omental appendices

95

What are the two secondarily retroperitoneal parts of the large intestine?

Ascending and Descending

96

What are the two peritoneal parts of the large intestine

Transverse and Sigmoid

97

What is the arterial supply for the following segments of the large intestine?
1.) Ascending colon
2.) Transverse colon
3.) Descending colon
4.) Sigmoid colon

1.) Ileocolic and right colic arteries
2.) Middle colic artery
3.) Left colic artery
4.) Sigmoid artery

98

A diverticulum of the cecum that emerges at the junction of the three teniae coli

Appendix

99

The appendix receives its blood supply from the appendicular artery from the

Ileocolic artery

100

Blind pouch inferior to the ileocecal valve that gives rise to the appendix

Cecum

101

What is the arterial supply of the cecum?

Superior mesenteric artery --> Ileocolic artery

102

What is the venous drainage of the cecum?

Ileocolic vein --> superior mesenteric vein --> portal vein

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