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Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 9 Deck (124):
1

What is the process called where a substance is combined with oxygen?

oxydation

2

What are some common sugars?

glucose, fructose, lactose, maltose, sucrose

3

What are the most important energy-producing compounds in the cell, and provide most of the energy for living things?

carbohydrates

4

What is the name for simple sugars?

monosaccharides

5

What are two monosaccharides combined called?

disaccharides

6

Are monosaccharides and disaccharides simple carbohydrates?

yes

7

What kind of carbohydrates are polysaccharides?

complex carbohydrates

8

Where are complex carbohydrates found?

Bread, cereal, pasta, potatoes, and rice.

9

What kind of starch is manufactured by cells of animals and man?

glycogen

10

Which polysaccharide forms the walls of plants and is made up of complex chains of glucose?

cellulose

11

What kind of fiber slows

soluble fiber

12

What substances, which contain cellulose, are not digested or made into a part of our bodies?

dietary fiber

13

What fiber helps move the undigested waste materials along to keep the intestines clean and healthy?

insoluble fiber

14

What are the main source of energy for doing things?

carbohydrates

15

How much of our total Calorie intake should digestible carbohydrates provide?

45 and 65%

16

What types of food are rich in starchy carbohydrates?

cereals,bread, potatoes, pasta, and rice.

17

What foods are rich in sugary carbohydrates?

fruits, honey, cane and beet sugar

18

What types of food are rich in starchy carbohydrates?

cereals,bread, potatoes, pasta, and rice.

19

What are the building blocks of protein?

amino acids

20

What complex organic molecules used to building maintain living cells, composes about half of the body's dry weight?

proteins

21

What are the building blocks of proteins?

amino acids

22

What serves as the energy carrier of the cell an a convenient form for the temporary storage of chemical energy?

ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

23

What is formed when a molecule breaks off ATP?

ADP (adenosine diphosphate)

24

What part of our diet should proteins make up?

10-35 % of total calorie intake

25

What is the name for amino acids that our bodies can make but also need to be provided by the food we eat?

essential amino acids

26

What is a protein called that lacks any of the essential amino acids?

incomplete protein

27

What are fats, oils, and fat-like substances called that are characterized by their insolubility in water?

lipids

28

What is the most basic type of lipid molecule that is composed of a molecule of carbon and oxygen atoms attached to a long chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms??

fatty acid

29

In what kind of fatty acid is every single hydrogen bond occupied?

saturated fatty acid

30

What kind of fatty acid possesses the ability to make another hydrogen bond?

unsaturated

31

In what kind of unsaturated fatty acid can one hydrogen bond be made?

monounsaturated fatty acid

32

In what kind of unsaturated fatty acid can more than one hydrogen bond be made?

polyunsaturated fatty acid

33

What are the two fatty acids that we are unable to make called?

essential fatty acids

34

What are the larger molecules called that combined fatty acids make up?

fats

35

What is the name for true fats?

triglycerides

36

What are fats called that are liquid at room temperature?

oils

37

What is the product called after hydrogen is added to oils?

hydrogenated oils

38

What kind of lipid is used to make bile, vitamin D, and hormones?

cholesterol

39

Where does our body store fat?

In adipose cells

40

How much of our total calorie intake should consist of fat?

25%

41

What are important organic substances which are found in plants and animals and foods made from them?

Vitamins

42

What are substances that neutralize harmful molecules called free radicals that would damage cells?

antioxidants

43

List the water-soluble vitamins.

C and B complex

44

List the fat or lipid-soluble vitamins

A D E K

45

What is a disease caused by lack of some substance in the diet called?

deficiency disease

46

What are processed foods to which vitamins have been added called?

enriched foods

47

What is the toxic effect caused by too many vitamins in the system?

hypervitaminosis

48

What are important inorganic foods which are needed for proper growth and repair of body tissues called?

minerals

49

What are elements called that are needed in extremely small quantities?

trace elements

50

What is fluid inside the cells called?

intracellular fluid

51

What is fluid inside the cells called?

extracellular fluid

52

What condition occurs when your body tissues absorb extra fluids and cannot maintain the proper water balance?

edema

53

What is the common unit for measuring the energy of food?

calorie

54

What do many nutritionists refer to calories as to differentiate them from other calories?

kilocalories (kcal)

55

What is the sum of all body activities related to the use of food and oxygen called?

metabolism

56

What is the rate called when the metabolism rate is lowest when we are at rest?

basal metabolic rate

57

What is commonly a reflection of bad eating habits and insufficient physical activity?

being obese

58

What is generally one safe, healthy way to lose weight?

Reduce calorie intake to about 1500-1800 calories per day, eat a diet high in carbohydrates and low in fats, and excursive daily.

59

What tube, which extends from the mouth to the anus, includes the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum?

alimentary canal

60

What is the changing of food substances with large, complex chemical molecules into substances which have smaller, less complex molecules?

digestion

61

What catalysts are produced by living cells?

enzymes

62

What is a catalyst?

It is any substance which brings about or speeds up a chemical change but is not used up in the process?

63

What enzymes, which control digestion, are produced by tiny secreting bodies called digestive glands?

digestive enzymes

64

What is another name for the mouth?

oral cavity

65

What is composed mainly of a compound of protein and sugar and is produced by the membrane's special secreting cells?

mucus

66

What serves as the roof of the mouth, and works with the tongue, lips, and teeth to form words for speech?

the palate

67

What functions to push food between the teeth and help mix the food with mucus and saliva?

the tongue

68

What glands daily produce 1 to 1.5 liters of a sticky digestive juice called saliva?

salivary glands

69

What enzymes begin digestion of starch before food is even swallowed?

salivary amylase

70

What are the four front cutting teeth?

incisors

71

What are the two tearing teeth which flank the incisors?

cuspids

72

What are the four light grinding teeth that are arranged as a pair on each side of the jaw next to the cuspids?

bicuspids

73

What six heavy-grinding teeth are arranged three to a side at the back of the jaw?

molars

74

What is the last molar on each side of the jaw called that usually appears between the ages of seventeen and twenty-five?

wisdom tooth

75

What is it called when a wisdom tooth is stuck underneath another tooth and can't come up?

The wisdom tooth is impacted

76

What is the motion of breaking up food into small particles through chewing called?

mastication

77

What is the part of the tooth called that is exposed above the gums?

crown

78

What is the part of the tooth that is at the gumline?

neck

79

What part of the tooth anchors it below the gum?

root

80

What tooth section consists of blood vessels and nerves and is the inner part of the tooth?

pulp

81

What is the bonelike later called which surrounds the pulp and forms the bulk of the tooth?

dentine

82

What is the mineral substance called that covers the crown? It is the hardest substance in the body.

enamel

83

What is the bonelike substance that fastens the root of the tooth to the jaw?

cementum

84

What is another name for throat?

pharynx

85

What is the most common disease in man?

tooth caries

86

What is the sticky, colorless film of bacteria called that forms on the teeth?

plaque

87

What is the old plaque that has not been removed from the teeth called?

tartar

88

What is the long, muscular tube which connects the pharynx with the stomach and lies behind the trachea?

esophagus

89

What is the rhythmic wave called that moves food down the esophagus through the stomach?

peristalsis

90

What is the flap called that closes over the top of the windpipe as you swallow?

epiglottis

91

What is the saclike, J-shaped storage structure that has a capacity of about three pints?

stomach

92

What is the product of the secretions of digestive cells called?

gastric juice

93

What is the acid called that softens food, kills bacteria, and reacts with other minerals and makes them soluble so they can better be absorbed through the walls of the small intestine?

hydrochloric acid

94

What is the thick liquid called that the bolus turns into in the stomach?

chyme

95

What organ produces bile, which helps with digestion?

liver

96

What is the greenish-colored substance called which the liver secretes?

bile

97

What is the most important component of bile that helps with digestion in the small intestine?

bile salts

98

What is the process called where the fat molecules link themselves to the fat-soluble ends of bile-salt molecules, thus making smaller droplets?

emulsification

99

What is the tube called through which bile enters the small intestine?

bile duct

100

What is the organ called that produces pancreatic juice and secretes it into the small intestine?

pancreas

101

What juice that is secreted by the pancreas contains several important enzymes and aids in the digestion process of the small intestine?

pancreatic juice

102

What dissolved substance does the pancreas also produce that neutralizes the hydrochloric acid secreted by the gastric glands?

sodium bicarbonate

103

What is the primary organ of digestion and absorption?

small intestine

104

What is the first ten inches of the small intestine called?

duodenum

105

What is the middle section of the small intestine called?

jejunum

106

What is the last part of the small intestine called?

ileum

107

What glands of the small intestine produce intestinal juice which contains several enzymes?

intestinal glands

108

What is the movement of water, digested food, and other disclosed substances into the bloodstream?

absorption

109

What are the tiny, hairlike projection called that help absorb digested food in the small intestine?

villi

110

What are the fine extensions of the epithelial cells called that extend into the passageway of the small intestine?

microvilli

111

What is the tubelike vessel called that is found in the middle of each villi that empties into the bloodstream far away from the small intestine?

lacteal

112

What hormone is released by the pancreas whenever the level of glucose in the blood rises above normal?

insulin

113

What hormone is released by the pancreas whenever the level of glucose in the bloodstream falls below normal?

glucagon

114

What waste substance is the by-product of excess amino acids and is removed from the bloodstream by the kidneys?

urea

115

What is another name for the large intestine?

colon

116

What is the small, fingerlike structure at the junction of the colon and small intestine?

vermiform appendix

117

What is the condition that occurs when the appendix becomes infected?

appendicitis

118

What is joined to the end of the descending colon and stores undigestible materials which pass through the digestive system?

rectum

119

What are the wastes of the body called?

feces

120

What form of food poisoning is caused by bacteria clostridium botulinum?

botulism

121

What rare disease is the most serious if the salmonella infections?

typhoid fever

122

What infection is a common food infection caused when bacteria of the genus salmonella get into or on food?

salmonella

123

What is known as dyspepsia?

gastric indigestion

124

What is an open sore in the mucous membrane resulting from the breakdown of tissues?

an ulcer