Abnormalities in Immune Response Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abnormalities in Immune Response Deck (24):
1

hypersensitivity

immunologic reaction to antigen that causes damage to the host

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two systems of classification

antigen source
mechanism of reaction

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allergy

environmental antigens

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autoimmunity

self-antigens

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alloimmunity

another person's antigens (ie. blood transfusions, transplants)

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Type I mechanism of reaction

involves IgE & mast cells (hay fever)
"IgE Mediated"

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Type II mechanism of reaction

involves IgG, IgM, and macrophages (graves disease, autoimmune)
"Tissue Specific Hypersensitivity"

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Type III mechanism of reaction

IgG, IgM, and neutrophils (Lupus)
"Immune complex mediated hypersensitivity"

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Type IV mechanism of reaction

lymphocytes and macrophages (poison ivy, metals)
"Cell-Mediated Hypersensitivity"

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process of Type I mechanism of reaction

exposure to antigen causes increased IgE
IgE attaches to a receptor on mast cells, causing them to degranulate (histamine released)

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process of Type II mechanism of rxn

IgG and/or IgM attaches to antigen which attaches to cells of tissue --> cascade of macrophage acitvity --> continued production of antibodies that attack involved tissue

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process of Type III mechanism of rxn

immune complexes are formed in blood plasma and deposit in tissue; tissue is harmed by enzymes released by WBCs

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process of Type IV mechanism of rxn

mediated by T-cells
tissue destruction occurs due to enzymes and free radicals released from T cells and macrophages
eg. TB test

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immune deficiency

failure of immune system to function at normal level resulting in greater susceptibility to infection

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primary deficiency

congenital or genetic problems
Several types:
B-Cell deficiency
T-Cell "
Combined B- and T- Cells"
complement "
phagocyte "

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secondary deficiency

caused by illness or by normal physiologic processes (pregnancy, aging, infancy)
more common

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signs of immunodeficiency in adults

2-4 infections/yrs

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signs of immunodeficiency in children

6-12 infections/year

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Tx for primary deficiencies

Gamma Globulin Therapy
Transplantation/Transfusion
Soluble immune modulators
gene therapy

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retrovirus

a virus with mRNA as its genome enters a cell and uses reverse transcriptionase to produce DNA that incorporates into the host cell

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Examples of Type I

bee sting allergy
H1 receptors

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Examples of Type II

Type I Diabetes
rheumatoid arthritis
MS
glomerulonephritis

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Exmples of Type III

serum sickness (getting wrong blood transfusion)
Raynaud's Disease
Lupus Erythematosus

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Examples of Type IV

tissue graft rejection
contact dermatitis (poison ivy)
TB skin testing