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Flashcards in AC2.3 Deck (15):
1

What are sociological theories?

Theories that believe society influences a person to become criminal

2

Marxist theory

Crime and punishment are a way for the ruling class to control the working class
Different social classes are policed differently
Official crime statistics are socially constructed

3

What are agents of social control?

All the major institutions in society e.g Education, religion and the CJS are all in place to encourage people to conform and not rebel

4

Functionalist theory- Emile Durkheim

Crime is functional for 3 reasons:

It sets the boundaries of what society considers acceptable behaviour

It can help people and laws change as a reaction to the crime

People also come together when they feel society is under attack

5

Durkheim believed 3 things about crime?

Crime is:

Functional
Normal
Inevitable

6

Mertons strain theory

Society encourages people to achieve material success but not everyone can so there is a strain between the goals of society and means to obtain them

7

What are the 5 types of response to the anomie? (Strain theory)

Conformists
Innovators
Ritualist
Retreatist
Rebels

8

What is the anomie?

Normlesslness

Not being able to achieve societies goals in the normal way

9

Interactionism (Labelling theory, Howard Becker)

Refers to how people interact with one another
Certain groups of people were more likely to be labelled criminal than others
Agents of social control do the labelling

10

What are Folk devils? (Labelling theory)

When the media portrays a certain type of people as criminal, they become folk devils

11

What is deviancy amplification? (Labelling theory)

When a moral panic occurs and the criminal perception towards the folk devils is amplified

12

Right realism and Left realism

Crime is real, victims are real and something realistic needs to be done about it

13

Right realism

Their view is to be tough in crime and those who commit it
Charles Murray claimed that the rise of an underclass (single working class parents with no Male role models for children) are responsible for crime

14

What is inadequate socialisation? (Right realism)

People are not brought up properly

15

Left realism

Crime is a result of inequalities in society created by capitalism
Crime can be solved by reducing inequality e.g reducing poverty, reducing unemployment etc
Jock Young believed that a consumerist culture causes people to turn to crime as they can’t afford material things