Flashcards in Acid-Base Deck (11):
What are common causes of respiratory acidosis?
COPD, asthma, drugs (opioids, benzos, barbiturates, alcohol); chest wall problems (paralysis, pain); sleep apnea
What are common causes of metabolic acidosis?
gap = MUDPILERS
non-gap: diarrhea, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
What are the common causes of metabolic alkalosis?
respiratory: aspirin overdose (along with metabolic acidosis, tinnitus, hypoglycemia, vomiting); hyperventilatoin
metabolic: diuretics (except carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, vomiting, volume contraction, antacid abuse/milk alkali syndrome (overabundance of calcium), hyperaldosteronism
What are the different etiologies of hyponatremia?
hypovolemic: Dehydration, diuretics, hyperaldosteronism, Addison's disease
euvolemic: SIADH, psychogenic polydypsia, oxytocin use
hypervolemic: CHF, nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis, renal failure
spurious: hyperglycemia (if sugar over 200, sodium decreases by 1.6 every 100 mg/dL of sugar), hyperproteinemia, hyperlipidemia can make sodium look low
What should be the rate of correction for hyponatremia?
Should not exceed 0.5-1 meq/L/h
What causes hyperkalemia?
1) kidney failure
2) tissue lysis
3) hypoaldosteronism (in diabetes, can have hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism)
4) medications (K sparing diuretics, ACEis)
5) adrenal insufficiency
What are signs/symptoms of hypocalcemia?
Chvostek's sign (spasm with tap facial nerve); Trousseau's sign (carpal spasm with inflation of BP cuff); prolongation of QT
depression, seizures, encephalopathy
What causes hypocalcemia?
hypoparathyroidism (post-thyroidectomy (if parathyroid's removed); renal failure, acute pancreatitis; vit D deficiency; etc
Hypocalcemia can also be caused by (acidosis/alkalosis)
alkalosis. Alkalosis causes calcium to shift intercellularly. This is why when people hyperventilate, they get perioral numbness.
What are the signs of hypercalcemia?
Bones, groans, stones, psychiatric overtones
bones: osteopenia, pathologic fractures
groans: abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, n/v
stones: kidney stones, polyuria
psychiatric: delirium, depression, psychosis
QT interval shortening