Acid/Base Disorders and Blood Products Flashcards Preview

Blood! > Acid/Base Disorders and Blood Products > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acid/Base Disorders and Blood Products Deck (15):
1

Metabolic acidosis

  • Problem: Gain of H+ or loss of HCO3-
  • pH: ↓
  • PaCO2: ↓
  • HCO3-: ↓

2

Metabolic alkalosis

  • Problem: Gain of HCO3- or loss of H+
  • pH: ­­­↑
  • PaCO2: ­­­↑
  • HCO3-:­ ↑

3

Respiratory alkalosis

  • Problem: Hyperventilation
  • pH: ↑
  • PaCO2: ↓
  • HCO3-: ↓
  • Possible causes:
    • Intracerebral hemorrhage
    • Cirrhosis
    • Sepsis

4

Respiratory acidosis

  • Problem: Hypoventilation
  • pH: ↓
  • PaCO2: ↑
  • HCO3-: ↑
  • Possible causes:
    • CNS depression
    • Pleural disease
    • Musculoskeletal disorders
    • Compensation for metabolic alkalosis

5

PAO2 = FiO(PB - 47) - 1.2 (PaCO2)

  •  

6

CaO2 = 1.34 (SaO2 x Hgb) + 0.003 (PaO2)

7

pH = pK + log [HCO3- / (0.03(PaCO2))]

8

PaCO2 = VCO2 x (0.863/VA)

The equation states that arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) is directly proportional to the amount of CO2 produced by metabolism and delivered to the lungs (VCO2) and inversely proportional to the alveolar ventilation (VA).

9

Whole RBCs

  • Contents
    • RBCs
    • WBCs
    • Platelet debris
    • Plasma
    • Fibrinogen
  • Indications
    • RBC volume replacement
    • Plasma volume replacement

10

PRBCs

  • Content
    • RBCs
    • WBCs
    • Plasma
    • Platelet debris
  • Indications
    • RBC volume replacement
    • Impaired oxygen carrying capacity 2/2 anemia

One unit of PRBCs increases an average adult’s Hgb by about 1 g/dL (and the Hct by about 3%) above the pretransfusion value.

11

Platelets

  • Content
    • Platelets
    • Low WBCs
    • Some plasma
  • Indications
    • Platelet count less than 50-100k
    • Clinical signs of dilutional thrombocytopenia
    • Platelet dysfunction

12

FFP

  • Content
    • Plasma proteins
    • All coagulation factors
  • Indications
    • Bleeding 2/2 factor deficiencies
    • Anti-thrombin III defiiciencies
    • Massive transfusions
    • Warfarin/coumadin reversal

The expected incremental increase in platelet count is 30 - 60k for each six-pack/aphoresis unit of platelets

13

Cryoprecipitate

  • Contents
    • Factor VIII
    • Factor XIII
    • Fibrinogen
    • Fibronectin
    • vWF
  • Indications
    • Hemophilia A
    • vWDz
    • Fibrinogen deficiency

14

Type and Screen

"Type and Screen" - This is requested when it is unlikely that blood will be needed emergently. There are no donor units specifically matched and reserved for the potential recipient patient. However, the patient's blood type is identified, and a screen will have identified potential antibodies that could complicate obtaining blood. A crossmatch to find compatible units can be done more easily following a "type and screen."

15

Type and Cross

"Type and Cross" - This is requested when it is likely that blood will be needed. Compatibility testing between patient and donor units is performed and at least 2 units are crossmatched for the patient and resrved specifically for that patient. These units cannot be used for anyone else. If they are not used, then they can go back into the inventory for use by others.