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Flashcards in Acid-Base Disturbances Deck (12):
1

Give examples of causes of respiratory acidosis?

COPD
Obstruction of airway
Asthma
Drugs (which would depress resp centre)
Injury/infection of brain stem

2

What ABGs are typical of respiratory acidosis?

PO2 >6.0kPa
Decreased pH
Increased CO2
Increased Bicarbonate (HCO3-)

3

What clinical sign would suggest respiratory acidosis?

Hyperventilation
Body needs to get rid of CO2 to compensate

4

What can be a cause of respiratory alkalosis?

Hyperventilation
High altitude
Fever
Hysterical over breathing

5

Typical ABGs of a patient with respiratory alkalosis?

Decreased pCO2 <4.7
Elevated pH
Decreased bicarbonate

6

List some causes of metabolic acidosis?

Acid ingestion
Excess metabolic production pf H+ (e.g. in DKA, lactate acidosis)
Loss of bicarbonate (e.g. severe diarrhoea)
Chronic Renal disease/failure (failure to excrete H+)

7

What ABG's would be seen in metabolic acidosis?

Normal pCO2
Decreased pH
Decreased bicarbonate

8

What can be done to alter the metabolic acidosis>

Alkali can be administered

9

What causes of metabolic acidosis will increase the anion gap?

Renal failure
Diabetic or Lactic acidosis

10

In what causes of metabolic acidosis does the anion gap remain unchanged/normal?

Diarrhoea
Renal tubular acidosis

11

List the causes of metabolic alkalosis

Vomiting/Diarrhoea - leading to loss of acid
Alkali ingestion
Depleted ECF (burns, haemorrhage, excess diuretic use etc)

12

Typical ABGs in a patient with metabolic alkalosis?

Increased pH
Normal pCO2
Increased HCO3-