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Flashcards in Acid Base disturbances Deck (22)
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1

Describe the pH, CO2 and bicarbonate in metabolic acidosis

pH: Low
CO2: Low (compensated)
HCO3: Low

2

Describe the pH, CO2 and bicarbonate in metabolic alkalosis

pH: High
CO2: High (compensated)
HCO3: High

3

Describe the pH, CO2 and bicarbonate in respiratory acidosis

pH: Low
CO2: High
HCO3: High (compensated)

4

Describe the pH, CO2 and bicarbonate in respiratory alkalosis

pH: High
CO2: Low
HCO3: Low (compensated)

5

What acronym can be used to interpret an ABG and determine whether the cause is metabolic or respiratory?

ROME
Respiratory
Opposite
Metabolic
Equal

6

What is meant by "respiratory opposite" in ROME?

Direction of pH change is opposite to direction of CO2 change
E.g. respiratory acidosis= low pH, high PaCO2

7

What is meant by "metabolic equal" in ROME?

pH change goes in same direction as CO2 change

8

What is the mechanism causing respiratory acidosis?

Alveolar hypoventilation
CO2 retention

9

What is the mechanism causing respiratory alkalosis?

Increase RR or tidal volume
Alveolar hyperventilation
CO2 washout

10

What is the mechanism causing metabolic acidosis?

Increased ingestion/ production of H+
Increased loss of HCO3

11

What is the mechanism causing metabolic acidosis?

Increased ingestion/ production of HCO3
Increased loss of H+

12

List 4 types of causes of respiratory acidosis

Airway obstruction: COPD
Acute lung disease: Pneumonia
Respiratory muscle weakness: Myasthenia Gravis
CNS Depression: Head traum

13

List 4 types of causes of respiratory alkalosis

Pain, anxiety, panic attacks
Pregnancy
Hypoxemia: Altitude
Pulmonary disease e.g. PE

14

What are the 2 types of metabolic acidosis?

High anion gap metabolic acidosis
Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

15

What are the 2 types of metabolic alkalosis?

Chloride responsive
Chloride resistant

16

List 4 causes of high anion gap metabolic acidosis

Lactic acidosis: metformin use
Ketoacidosis: DM
Renal insufficiency
Iron tablets

17

List 4 causes of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Renal tubular acidosis
GI loss of HCO3: diarrhoea
Hyperchloremia
Addisons disease

18

List 3 causes of Chloride responsive metabolic alkalosis

Vomiting
Hypovolemia
Loop + thiazide diuretics

19

List 2 causes of Chloride resistant metabolic alkalosis

Hyperaldosteronism
Cushings

20

Describe compensation in metabolic disorders

Rapid compensation in minutes due to change in minute ventilation

21

Describe compensation in respiratory disorders

Slow compensation over hours/ days due to change in urine pH

22

What is a high anion gap indicative of?

Metabolic acidosis