ACP Questions #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ACP Questions #3 Deck (149):
1

First-line treatment for acute urticaria

Antihistamines

2

Anaphylaxis due to food allergy is mediated by this antibody

IgE

3

Diagnosis associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and recurrent sinopulmonary infections

Common variable immunodeficiency

4

Hereditary condition suggested by genital edema in a child after riding a bicycle

Hereditary angioedema

5

Recommended prophylaxis for patients with chronic granulomatous disease

Trimethoprim/sufamethoxazole plus interferon

6

Major complication associated with recombinant human activated protein C

Bleeding

7

Adjuvant treatment to prevent severe pain associated with herpes zoster

Prednisone

8

Diagnosis suggested by muscle spasms provoked by gentle blowing onto the face

Rabies

9

Diagnostic test to confirm amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Electromyography

10

Nerve root impingement producing absent Achilles reflex

S1 nerve root

11

Other than allergy, absolute contraindication to triptan and ergotamine use

Coronary artery disease (angina)

12

Progressive impairment of cognition with prominent personality and behavior changes

Frontotemporal dementia

13

LDL cholesterol below 70 mg/dL is associated with this adverse outcome

Hemorrhagic stroke

14

Upper airway complication of prolonged intubation

Tracheal stenosis (or tracheomalacia)

15

Most likely cause of failure to wean a patient who received neuromuscular blocking agents to facilitate mechanical ventilation

Persistent neuromuscular blockade or acute myopathy

16

Smoke inhalation victim with coma, hypotension, profound anion-gap metabolic acidosis unresponsive to volume replacement and oxygen

Cyanide poisoning

17

Class of anti-influenza drugs with activity against influenza B

Neuraminidase inhibitors

18

The two most common bacterial pathogens associated with bronchiectasis

Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus

19

Name of childhood illness caused by parvovirus B 19

Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)

20

Etiological agent of fish tank granuloma

Mycobacterium marinum

21

Cutaneous anthrax location that is an indication for IV antibiotics

Face and neck

22

Oliguria, normal urine sediment and a fractional excretion of sodium less than 1.0%

Prerenal azotemia (any answer consistent with decreased effective vascular volume)

23

Diagnosis associated with hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis

Diuretic use or vomiting or Bartter's syndrome (any)

24

Biological drug for acute renal failure secondary to hepatitis C associated cryoglobulinemia

alpha-Interferon

25

Hormone results in regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in dialysis patients

Recombinant human erythropoietin

26

Creatinine, sex, and age-based formula to estimate glomerular filtration rate

Cockcroft-Gault formula (any part of name)

27

Most likely diagnosis associated with hypercalcemia and osteoporosis

Primary hyperparathyroidism

28

Sign associated with contraction of the facial muscles after tapping facial nerve

Chvostek's sign

29

Hyperglycemia resulting from morning surge in cortisol and growth hormone

Dawn phenomenon

30

Disease associated with necrolytic migratory erythema

Glucagonoma

31

Metabolic disease that is associated with patient smelling like putrid fish

Trimethylaminuria

32

Class of drugs causing regression of polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

33

Esophageal diagnosis associated with radiographic "bird's beak" sign

Achalasia

34

Typical location of perforation in acute idiopathic intestinal obstruction

Cecum

35

Non-hepatic cause of elevated indirect bilirubin in Wilson's disease

Hemolysis

36

Sudden loss of vision associated with hemorrhages confined to the optic disk and macula in acute pancreatitis

Purtscher's retinopathy

37

Best therapy for acute chest syndrome associated with sickle cell disease

Partial-exchange transfusion (transfusion acceptable)

38

Hematological diagnosis classically associated with pica and pallor

Iron deficiency anemia

39

Most common cause of mild, asymptomatic thrombocytopenia in pregnancy

Gestational thrombocytopenia

40

Best test for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

Flow cytometry

41

Drug for acute aplastic anemia

Antithymocyte globulin or cyclosporin (either)

42

Diagnosis associated with anovulatory uterine bleeding, hirsutism, and obesity

Polycystic ovary syndrome

43

Common diagnosis causing chronic, heavy menstrual bleeding with varying cycle length

Anovulatory bleeding

44

Breast cancer prediction model based upon personal and family risk factors

Gail model

45

Vulvar lichen sclerosis predisposes to this malignant condition

Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma

46

Dermatological condition causing vulvar itching, edema, skin thickening, and erythema

Lichen simplex chronicus

47

Medical treatment for mild to moderate salicylate intoxication

Alkalinization of the urine

48

Group of toxins that can produce an elevated osmolal gap

Alcohols

49

Treatment of choice for severe carbon monoxide toxicity with coma

Hyperbaric oxygen

50

Name of nomogram used to determine probability of acetaminophen toxicity

Rumack-Matthew nomogram

51

Mechanism of supine hypotensive syndrome of pregnancy

Compression the inferior vena cava or the aorta by uterus (either answer)

52

Best trimester to perform "semi-elective" abdominal surgery

Second trimester

53

Normal PCO2 level during pregnancy

28-32 mm Hg (accept any answer within range)

54

Major fetal effect of maternal ACE inhibitor use

Renal tubular dysgenesis

55

Pregnancy complication of untreated Trichomonas vaginitis

Premature rupture of membranes or preterm delivery (either answer)

56

Dermatological diagnosis of painful finger lesions

Cutaneous infarctions (accept vasculitis and emboli)
[google picture]

57

Most common neurological complication of systemic cancer

Brain metastases

58

Treat this cancer in a woman with adenocarcinoma of unknown primary and diffuse peritoneal metastases

Ovarian cancer

59

Serum marker that is unique for nonseminomatous testicular cancer

Alpha-fetoprotein

60

Relapsing fever of Hodgkin's disease

Pel-Ebstein fever

61

Test used to screen for anal intraepithelial neoplasia in high risk patients

Pap smear

62

Term for conjunctival edema

Chemosis

63

Ophthalmologic diagnosis in a HIV patient

Cytomegalic retinitis [google photo]

64

Primary ophthalmological finding

Papilledema [google photo]

65

Painful and serious ophthalmologic diagnosis

Sclertitis [google photo]

66

Disease associated with corkscrew conjunctival vessels

Sickle cell disease

67

Oliguria, red blood cell casts, and a fractional excretion of sodium less than 1.0%

Glomerulonephritis

68

Syndrome of hematuria, bilateral abdominal masses, and renal failure

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (or polycystic kidney disease)

69

Personal habit that increases the risk of IgA nephropathy progressing to end-stage renal failure

Smoking

70

In addition to red blood cell casts, microscopic finding confirms the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis

Dysmorphic red blood cells

71

Cardiac auscultatory finding associated with acute ischemia that disappears with relief of the ischemia

Mitral regurgitant murmur (accept holosystolic murmur), paradoxical splitting of S2, and an S4 (any one answer accepted)

72

Phase of respiration when pericardial friction rubs are best heard

Inspiration

73

Paraumbilical node associated with intraabdominal or pelvic neoplasm

Sister Joseph's node (Sister Mary Joseph's node also acceptable

74

Shortness of breath in the erect position

Platypnea

75

Respiratory problem associated with yellow nail syndrome

Pleural effusion OR bronchiectasis OR sinusitis

76

Typical location of bullae in patients with alpha-1- antitrypsin deficiency

Lower chest

77

Laryngeal finding associated with vocal cord dysfunction

Adduction of vocal cords (or paradoxical motion of vocal cords)

78

Inhaled drug that is effective for bronchoconstriction due to propranolol

Ipratropium

79

Cystic lung disease in women of childbearing age

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

80

Late, severe complication of silo filler's disease

Brochiolitis obliterans

81

Most important factor determining prognosis following myocardial infarction

Left ventricular ejection fraction

82

Coronary artery most often responsible for ischemic papillary muscle rupture

Posterior descending artery (accept RCA)

83

Diagnosis associated with bradycardia and variable intensity of S1

Complete heart block (or 3rd degree heart block)

84

Presence of this drug is a contraindication to calcium gluconate in the treatment of hyperkalemia

Digitalis

85

Drugs used for "pill-in-the-pocket" treatment of atrial fibrillation

Flecainide and propafenone

86

Sleep disorder that can be associated with difficult to treat systemic hypertension

OSA

87

Diagnosis suggested by persistently split S2, loud pulmonary closure, and prominent right ventricular impulse

Pulmonary hypertension

88

Name describing generalized swelling of an entire digit

Dactylitis

89

Eponym for a bruise over the mastoid, indicating a basal skull fracture

Battle's sign

90

Eponym associated with water-hammer type pulse

Corrigan's pulse

91

Eponym associated with systolic plethora and diastolic blanching in the nail

Quincke's pulse

92

Location of surgeries associated with greatest risk in patients with COPD

Upper abdominal or thoracic (accept either)

93

Duration of prophylactic antibiotics for uncomplicated surgical procedures

24 hours

94

Recommended preoperative screening prior to cataract surgery

None

95

Percentage of patients with a negative history but abnormal bleeding tests that require preoperative treatment

0.3% (less than 1% acceptable)

96

General surgery may be safely performed if the INR is below this level

1.5

97

Chronic renal failure increases risk for this third trimester pregnancy complication

Preeclampsia

98

Most common causes of postpartum thyrotoxicosis

Graves disease or postpartum thyroiditis (either)

99

Vasodilator of choice for peripartum cardiomyopathy

Hydralazine

100

Treatment of gestational hypertension improves this renal outcome

Decreased proteinuria

101

Gram-stain finding in expectorated sputum from a chemotherapy patient [google photo]

Candida

102

An oral prodrug of ganciclovir for treatment of CMV retinitis

Valganciclovir

103

Best initial imaging test for subarachnoid hemorrhage

Noncontrast CT

104

Transient, acute memory loss lasting for minutes without loss of consciousness

Transient global amnesia

105

Periodic headache classically found in male smokers

Cluster headache

106

Auditory symptom associated with Bell's palsy

Hyperacusis

107

Common fruit drink that inhibits cyctochrome P-450 isoenzyme CYP3A4

Grapefruit juice

108

Drug that is involved in the greatest number of serious drug-drug interactions

Warfarin

109

Mechanism of action of most nerve gas agents

Inhibit cholinesterase

110

Common divalent cation that interferes with absorption of fluroquinolones

Calcium or magnesium

111

Drug used to treat bleeding associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Combination estrogen/progesterone (accept hormone therapy)

112

Diagnosis associated with equalization of diastolic pressures in right atrium, right ventricle, wedge pressure, and left ventricle

Tamponade or constrictive pericarditis

113

Most common congenital cause of chronic aortic regurgitation

Bicuspid aortic valve

114

Drug reduces risk for aortic valve replacement for chronic aortic regurgitation

Nifedipine

115

Agent responsible for cervical cancer

Human papillomavirus

116

Age to discontinue Pap smears in low-risk women

Age 65 years

117

Drug for bacterial vaginosis

Metronidazole

118

Window of time for effective "emergency contraception"

72 hours

119

Topical drug for vulvar lichen simplex chronicus

Topical fluorinated corticosteroids (accept topical steroids)

120

Won nobel prize for discovering insulin.

Sir Frederick Banting or J.J.R. Macleod

121

Oldest medical school in the U.S.

University of Pennsylvania

122

First to see red blood cells with a microscope

Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek

123

Civil war surgeon who made over 10,000 contributions to the Oxford English Dictionary while an inmate at insane asylum

William Chester Minor

124

Blood test to distinguish primary from secondary adrenal insufficiency

ACTH

125

Production is increased in sarcoidosis and contributes to hypercalcemia

1,25-dihydroxycholecaciferol

126

Diabetic syndrome of symmetric proximal leg weakness and pain

Diabetic amyotrophy

127

Preferred imaging test for insulinoma

Endoscopic ultrasonography

128

Highly contagious viral cause of conjunctivitis

Adenoviruses or picornaviruses (either answer)

129

Occular finding in hypercalcemia

Band keratopathy

130

Adhesions that develop between the iris and lens capsule following iritis

Synechiae

131

Diagnostic procedure of choice for a patient with endophthalmitis

Aspiration and culture of anterior chamber (accept either part of answer)

132

Two most frequent symptoms of mild carbon monoxide poisoning

Headache and nausea

133

Accumulation of this gas is responsible for decompression illness

Nitrogen

134

Alcohol poisoning associated with acetone breath and normal acid-base status

Isopropyl alcohol

135

Medical significance of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI)

Toxic metabolite of acetominophen

136

Intravenous treatment for cyanide poisoning

Sodium thiosulfate

137

Most states require this consent prior to immunization of an adolescent

Parental consent

138

Unethical activity with a patient even if patient initiates or consents to the activity

Sexual contact

139

Principle confirms the right of patients to make own health care decisions, even if unwise

Autonomy

140

Federal Act of 1996 contains rules about privacy of medical records

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

141

An advance directive appointing a surrogate who will make decisions if the patient is unable to do so

Durable power of attorney (for health care)

142

Treatment for "porcelain gallbladder"

Cholecystectomy

143

Best test for suspected sclerosing cholangitis

ERCP (accept MRCP)

144

Diagnosis associated with diarrhea, metabolic acidosis and potassium loss

Villous adenoma or laxative abuse (either)

145

Drug for irritable bowel syndrome associated with ischemic colitis

Alosetron

146

Best drug for warm-antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia

Corticosteroids

147

Common infectious cause of transient reticulocytopenia

Parvovirus B19

148

Eponym for hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenic purpura

Evans syndrome

149

Hydroxyurea re-activates expression of this developmentally silenced protein

Fetal gamma globulin