Acquired immunity IV immunizations (complete) Flashcards Preview

DMD 5244 (Immunity) > Acquired immunity IV immunizations (complete) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acquired immunity IV immunizations (complete) Deck (24):
1

What are the 4 types of acquired immunity

Naturally acquired active
naturally acquired passive
artificially acquired active
artificially acquired passive

2

What is a naturally acquired immunity

an immune response against antigens encountered in daily life

3

what is an artificially acquired immunity

an immune response against antigens introduced via medical intervention

4

what is active immunity

the products of immunity are made by the individual (antibodies and such)

5

what is passive immunity

passively receiving antibodies made by another individual

6

what is an example of natural passive immunity

antibodies transferred from mother to offspring across the placenta or in the breastmilk

7

are vaccines effective?

yes, very

8

when do you use artificial passive immunity

to protect against a recent infection
when there is a life threatening exposure
immune deficiency

9

what are some problems with antiserum

1. too many different antigens, not just those of interest
2. can lead to allergic reactions
3. antiserum may have viral contaminants
4. the antibodies are quickly degraded

10

what type of hypersensitivities can be caused by passive immunization

type 1 and type 3

11

why do we do active immunizations

to induce immunity and memory

12

What are the pros of live, attenuated vaccines (weakened pathogens)

they retain their ability to replicate which promotes humoral and cell mediated immunity
often don't need boosters

13

what are the cons of live, attenuated vaccines (weakened pathoges)

may become pathogenic again
may have more side effect complications
may require a cold chain

14

what are the pros of inactivated or killed vaccines

no reversion to pathogenic form
more stable, easier to store and transport

15

what are the cons of inactivated or killed vaccines

often require boosters
they don't replicate so they don't induce cell-mediated immunity
dangerous in not all the pathogen is killed/inactivated

16

what are subunit vaccines

purified macromolecules derived from the pathogen (similar to killed vaccines)

17

What are recombinant vector vaccines

attenuated pathogens are used, and they are put into a vector

18

what are the pros of vector vaccines

all the pros of attenuated vaccines, without the risk of it becoming pathogenic (does have the other cons - stability issues)

19

what are DNA vaccines

plasmids with pathogen genes injected into muscle tissue, the host takes up the DNA and expresses it internally

20

what are the pros of DNA vaccines

induces both types of adaptive immunity
prolongs expression and memory
very stable and customizable

(no known cons yet)

21

what are conjugate or multivalent vaccines

the pairing of your antigen of interest with something that illicits a good immune response. (this leads to a better immunogenicity)

22

what are ISCOMs

immunostimulating complexes, they are lipid carriers that help transport your antigen of interest into the cell to bind to MHC 1 receptors.

23

what are adjuvants

things you add to your antigen to increase the immune response against it

24

some examples of adjuvants

Alum
MF59
ASO4
Quil A