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Flashcards in Acquisition Deck (32)
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1

Methods: Naturalistic

observe + record children’s spontaneous utterances

2

Methods: Diary study

keeps daily notes on child’s linguistic progress
Regular taping sessions at biweekly intervals, samples of child interacting with caregivers

3

Methods

•Tend to be longitudinal: examine language development over extended period of time, take a long time, advantage of permitting researchers to observe development as an ongoing process in individual children
•Particular structures + phenomena may occur rarely in children’s everyday speech
•Speech samples capture only small portion of their utterances at any given point in development

4

Methods: Experimental

specially designed tasks to elicit linguistic activity relevant to phenomenon that they wish to study
•Performance is used to formulate hypotheses about type of grammatical system acquired at that point

5

Methods: Cross sectional

investigates + compares linguistic knowledge of diff children at particular point in development

6

Experimental Studies

•Judge truth statements that are made about particular pics/situations presented
•Act out meaning of sentence with toys
•Present child with situation that calls for particular type of statement/question
•Determine if they can make yes-no questions by asking them to ask a puppet for his opinion

7

Experimental Studies

•Children’s ability to comprehend language is often more advanced than their ability to produce senrences of their own
•production tasks provide conservative view of linguistic development
•children’s ability to repeat particular structure provides good indication of how well they have mastered it

8

Phonological Development

•from 1 month ability to distinguish among certain speech sounds
•change in children’s sucking rate indicated that they perceived diff betw 2 syllables

9

Babbling

•6 months – babbling
•experiment with + begin to gain control over vocal apparatus
•early babbling partly independent of language they are exposed

10

Developmental Order

•1 year – intelligible words
•18 months of age – 50 words
•vowels before consonant – 3
•stops tend to be acquired first
•labials, alveolars, velars, alveopalatals. Interdentals last

11

Developmental Order

•new phonemic contrasts minafest themselves first in word initial position
•by 2, inventory of consonant phonemes of p,b,t,d,k,g,n,m,f,s,w
•by 4, includes v,z, sh, tsh,dz, j, l, r
•still to be acquired are interdental fricatives + voicd alveopalatal fricative

12

Syllable Deletion

•primary/secondary stress more salient to children in early stages of language acquisition
•more likely to be retained in pronunciation than unstressed
•unstressed syllables in final position tend to be retained

13

Syllable Simplication

•systematic deletion of certain sounds to simplify syllable structure
•reduction of consonant clusters
•elimination of final consonants

14

Substitution

•systematic replacement of one sound by an alternative that child finds easier to articulate
•stopping: replacement of a fricative by a corresponding stop
•fronting: forward a sound’s place of articulation
•gliding: replacement of liquid by glide
•denasalization: replacement of nasal stop by non nasal counterpart

15

Assimilation

•modification of 1/more features of segment under influence of neighbouring sounds
•maintain same place of articulation for all of consonants/vowels in a word

16

Vocabulary Development

•nounlike words make up largest class in child’s early vocab
•verb + adjective like words next most frequent
•most frequent: expression for displeasure/rejection (no) + various types of social interaction (please + bye)
•by 6 – 13/14 thousand words
•children differ somewhat in types of words they focus on
•diff in number of nouns in early vocab

17

Morphological Development

•lack internal morphological structure: affixes systematically absent + most words consist of single root morpheme

18

Overgeneralization

•may initially use irregular forms correctly
•sometimes use suffixes for the irregular forms
•overgeneralizations/overregularizations: overly broad application of a rule
•development of affixes

19

Overgeneralization

•1) case by case learning
•2) overuse of general rule
•3) mastery of exceptions to general rule
•ability to apply it informs they have not heard before indicates mastery
•overregularize less than 25% of the time
•overgeneralization errors reflect relapse in accessing appropriate irregular form from lexicon

20

A Developmental Sequence

•development of bound morphemes + functional categories takes place in orderly fashion
•partly independent of the frequency with which various morphemes occur in adult speech

21

Some Determining Factors

•1. Frequent occurrence, especially in utterance-final position: tendency to notice + remember elements at end of utterance
•2. Syllabicity: choice of morphemes (-ing) which can constitute syllables on their own
•3. Absence of homophony: complication in relationship betw form + meaning may impede acquisition

22

Some Determining Factors

•4. Few/no exceptions in way it is used
•5. Allomorphic invariance: allomorphic variation slows morphological development
•6. Clearly discernible semantic function

23

Word Formation Processes

•major word formation process in english – derivation + compounding – emerge ealy in acquisition
•derivational suffixes in child speech are most common in adult language
•propensity for forming compounds (N-N type) in expiremental setting + spontaneous speech
•some don’t follow usual pattern at ¾
•by 5 right structure, but english already has words for it

24

One Word Stage

•holphrases: choose most informative word that applies to situation at hand
•comprehension advance, understand many multiword utterances

25

The 2 Word Stage

•shortness of utterances means positional differences associated with category ditinctions often not manifested
•unclear if they possess syntactic categories
•always exhibit proper word order
•may have separate rule for each verb
•4 learned general subject-ver-object word order

26

Telegraphic Stage

•frequent absence of bound morphemes + non-lexical categories
•resemblance to clipped style of language found in telegraphs
•17 months can infer from presence/absence of determiner whether novel word refers to type of object/particular object

27

Telegraphic Stage

•18 months pay more attention to passage containing an is+V-ing pattern
•emergence of quite elaborate types of phrase structure
•from this point language development rapid

28

Yes-No Questions

•signal with rising intonation alone
•aux verb occurs twice
•error in inversion – leaving copy of moved aux behind in original position

29

Wh Questions

•2-4 gradually emerge
•some find inversion easier in yes-no question
•move wh word but not aux verb

30

Passives

•can produce passives at 3
•still difficult responding appropriately to passive constructions in comprehension tests
•Canonical Sentence Strategy: expect first NP in sentence to refer to agent
•Applied less consistently by grade 1