Flashcards in Acute Abdomen SA Deck (20):
Define acute abdomen
Condition of severe abdomenal pain caused by acute disease or injury to internal organs
What are the 3 stages to treating acute abdomen?
- Identify problem
> Diagnostic plan
> Treatment plan
> Follow up plan
What 4 physiological problems may cause pain in the abdo?
How may physiological disturbances be remembered?
V - cascular (thrombosis/heamorrhage)
I - Infection/inflammation/immune mediated
T - toxin/trauma
A - Anomalous
M - Metabolic
I - Iatrogenic/idiopathic
N - Neoplasia/nutrition
D - Degenerative
Give DDx for stomach/intestine related pain
- Mesenteric torsion
- GIT infection (parva, HGE)
Give DDx for pancreatic related pain
Pancreatitis, abscess, neoplasia
Give DDx for liver related pain
Give DDx for spleen related pain
Give DDx for peritoneal and retroperitoneal cavity related pain
Peritoneal: septic peritonitis (GIT, repro, external) Uroperitoneum, bile peritonitis [rare] severe distension from transudate/haemabdomen, abdo wall trauma
Retroperitoneal: renal infarctino, pyelonephritis due to UTI, neoplasia
Give DDx for bladder related pain
Cystitis, calculi, urethral obstruction
Give DDx for repro related pain
Pyometra, dystocia, prostatic abscess, prostatitis
What pay be confused for abdominal pain?
- Spinal pain
- Nervousness -> flinching
- Respiratory problems (compression of abdo -> compression of thorax)
- Hyperaesthesia (eg. cannabis consumption)
What diagnostic tests are usually carried out for acute abdomen?
- PCV/TS/blood smear---> CHEAP, QUICK, EASY
- Blood glucose -----------------^
- Abdo ultrasound for free fluid
- Abdomenocentesis (U/S or blind)
- Diagnostic peritoneal lavage
- Abdo radiographs (VD, R lateral for GDV, L lateral for pylorus, check fluid/obstruction/free gas, contrast studies)
- CT, heam/biochem
- Ex lap
What CV problem is commonly seen in dogs with GVD?
Ventricular premature complexes and tachycardia
What pathology may lead to hypoglycaemia?
Which diagnoses are classified as surgical emergencies?
- Gastric dilation ± volvulus (GVD)
- Septic peritonitis (GIT/uterine rupture/prostatic abscess rupture)
Which diagnoses may emergency surgery be considered?
- Risk of septic peritonitis
> Partial/complete obstruction
> Penetrating abdo wound
> Abdo bite/crush injury
What diagnoses may be classed as procedural or surgical emergencies?
- Metabolic emergency (uroperitoneum [drain peritoneum -> v azotaemia], urethral obstruction, bile peritonitis)
- Vascular emergency (splenic torsion, strangulated hernia, mesenteric torsion, intractable haemorrhage (replacing entire blood volume)
When should nutritional supplements/feeding assistance be provided?