Acute Inflammation 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Acute Inflammation 1 Deck (15):
1

What is the definition of inflammation

Inflammation is a reaction to injurious agents, consisting of vascular, cellular and systemic responses

2

What happens during inflammation

Cells and fluid rush to injured site
Rapid onset
Effects mediated by chemical messengers

3

What are the signs of inflammation

Calor (heat)
Rubor (redness)
Tumour (swelling)
Dolor (pain)

4

Steps required for inflammation

1. Initiating event and detection
- signal to body that a response is needed
2. Response
- fluids and cells move out of circulation to injured site
- cells send out signals to recruit other cells
- Engulf and attempt to kill and remove offending organisms
3. Down-regulation of the response when finished
- short lived responses that only continues whilst needed
- requires continual stimulation

5

What are the causes of acute inflammation

- infections and microbial toxins
- trauma
- physical and chemical agent
- tissue necrosis
- foreign bodies
- immune reactions

6

What happens to the movement of fluid and protein in an inflammation

- vasodilation
- increased vascular permeability
- Increased blood flow and vascular permeability leads to outpouring of fluids carrying proteins and cells (edema)

7

Describe the movement of cells in blood and its viscosity

- Higher viscosity components cluster in the middle
- Lower viscosity components move away from middle
- Exudation of liquid component increases blood viscosity and slows flow rate

8

What are the protein families involved in adhesion and transmigration

- selectins
- immunoglobulin (Ig) family
- integrins
- mucin-like glycoproteins

9

What are some examples of cell surface receptors and its roles

P-Selectin
- Rolling (neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes)

E-Selectin
- Rolling + adhesion to activated endothelium (neutrophils, monocytes, T-cells)

ICAM-1
- Adhesion, arrest, transmigration (all leukocytes)

VCAM-1
- Adhesion (eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes)

GlyCam-1
- Lymphocyte homing to high endothelial venules

CD31 (PECAM)
- Leukocyte migration through endothelum

10

What are the steps involved in rolling and adhesion

- Rolling
- Integrin activation by chemokines
- Stable adhesion
- Migration through endothelium

11

What are the effects of inflammatory mediators on cell surface receptors

- redistribute
- induce or mature other mediators and/or receptors

12

What are chemotaxis

Movement along a chemical gradient (either away or towards)

13

What are the various types of leukocyte activation

1. Increased integrin avidity; cytoskeletal changes --> Chemotaxis --> migration into tissues

2.Production of cytokines; reactive oxygen intermediates --> leukocyte activation --> killing off microbes

3. Phagocytosis of microbe into microsomes --> leukocyte activation --> killing of microbes

14

What is phagocytosis

Cell eating

15

Steps involved in phagocytosis

1. Recognition/Attachment via receptors
2. Engulfment
3. Killing and degradation

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