Acute Leukaemias, Pre-Leukaemic Conditions and Chronic Leukaemias Flashcards Preview

Haematology > Acute Leukaemias, Pre-Leukaemic Conditions and Chronic Leukaemias > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acute Leukaemias, Pre-Leukaemic Conditions and Chronic Leukaemias Deck (12):
1

What is myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

- Pre-leukaemic condition
- Clonal blood disorder characterised by failure of effective erythropoiesis (Low blood counts)
- More common in the elderly and has 'dysplastic' blood and marrow appearances

2

What are myeoproliferative disorders (MPDs)

- Pre-leukaemic condition
- Clonal blood disorder where the JAK2 mutation is present
- Characterised by effective haematopoiesis including essential thrombocythaemia (↑ platelets), polycythaemia vera (↑ RBCs/platelets/WBCs), and myelofibrosis (↑ fibrous tissue/platelets/WBCs)

3

How does Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) present?

- Rapid onset of symptoms
- Lethargy
- Infection
- Bleeding and bruising
- Bone pain
- Gum swelling
- Lymphadenopathy
- Skin rash

4

What are the laboratory findings in AML?

- Anaemia
- Neutropenia
- Thrombocytopenia
- Blasts
- >20% blast cells in bone marrow

5

How does Acute Lymphoid Leukaemia (ALL) present?

- The limping child
- Purpuric rash
- Unexplained bone pain
- Lumps vs liquid (lymphoblastic lymphoma vs true ALL)

6

How does Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) present?

- May be asymptomatic
- Fatigue
- Weight loss
- Night sweats
- Abdominal discomfort
- Splenomegaly

7

What testing is available for CML?

- Molecular test on blood for BCR-ABL using PCR/FISH
- Recurring abnormality translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22

8

How is CML managed?

- Imatinib blocks downstream target of phosphorylation

9

How does Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) present?

- May be asymptomatic
- Lethargy
- Night sweats
- Weight loss
- Symptoms of anaemia
- Lymphadenopathy
- Infection

10

How is CLL diagnosed?

- Involves a clonal population of B lymphocytes (>5x10*9/L)
- CD 5, 19, 20, 23 positive
- Bone marrow shows nodular or diffuse infiltrate
- Flow cytometry also used

11

How is CLL staged?

- Uses BINET
- A <3 involved nodes (10yrs)
- B > 3 involved nodes, liver, spleen (7yrs)
- C - anaemia or thrombocytopenia (2 yrs)

12

How is CLL treated?

- Alkylating agents
- Purine nucleosides
- Chemoimmunotherapy