Flashcards in Adaptations/Natural and Artificial Selection Deck (37):
What is an adaptation?
Something that allows for an animal to survive in its environment.
What is a structural adaptation?
Inherited characteristic that helps an organism survive.
What is a behavioral adaptation?
Things that an organism does to survive in an environment.
What is an example of a structural adaptation?
A fish gills which allows them to breath underwater.
Polar Bears having black skin to help absorb sunlight
What is an example of a behavioral adaptation?
Bears hibernating because it helps them survive cold and the lack of food.
A squirrel storing food for winter
Who is the Father of Evolution?
What mechanism for evolution did Darwin propose?
What is natural selection?
Organisms that are best adapted to an environment survive and reproduce more than others.
What are the four steps of natural selection?
Overproduction, variation, competition, and selection.
What is overproduction?
Each species produce more offspring than can live.
What is variation?
Each individual has a unique combination of inherited traits.
Why is variation important?
The more variation of types of species in a habitat the more likely at least some will survive.
What is competition?
When individuals compete for limited resources. Ex. - Food, water, space, mates, etc...
What does natural selection occur through?
"Survival of the fittest."
What does fittest refer to natural selection?
The best-adapted organism.
What is selection?
The individuals with the best traits/adaptations will survive and have the opportunity to pass on it's traits to offspring.
What is selective breeding?
The process by which humans breed animals or plants for particular traits.
What is artificial selection?
The breeding of plants and animals to produce desirable traits.
What happens during selective breeding?
Animals or plants are mated or cross-pollinated with organisms with similar desired traits.
Why do humans use selective breeding?
They breed different organisms for certain traits, but they also are selecting for certain genes.
What are dogs bred to do? (man has changed the traits or organisms by selective breeding)
Bred to be friendly
What are cows bred to do? (man has changed the traits or organisms by selective breeding)
Bred to produce more milk
What are horses bred to do? (man has changed the traits or organisms by selective breeding)
Bred for speed
What are peaches bred to do? (man has changed the traits or organisms by selective breeding)
Bred for size, the amount of fruit, and for color.
What is a major disadvantage or selective breeding? (general disadvantage) Example?
It can create organisms that are dangerous to the population. Ex. - African Honey Bee
What can selective breeding lead to?
The inability to reproduce.
What can selective breeding remove?
It can remove variation in a population.
What can selective breeding create?
What can selective breeding prolong?
The existence of harmful mutations.
What can selective breeding be? (Very)
What can selective breeding cause?
Harm to the animals that are being bred such as a shorter life span.
What must be presented in a community for it to have the best chance of survival?
If a helpful mutation appears that allows a living thing to be more adapted to its environment?
They will live longer and the better-adapted organism will increase.
What is the difference between a behavioral adaptation and a structural adaptation?
Structural adaptations are inherited characteristics and behavioral adaptations are things an organism does.
What is the difference between artificial and natural selection?
Artificial selection is the breeding of plants and animals to produce desirable traits due to natural selection is organisms that are best adapted to an environment survive and reproduce more than others.
How long has selective breeding been around?
10,000 years or a very long time.