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Flashcards in Adaptive Immunity Deck (28):
1

What are the 3 main functions of the lymphatic system?

-drainage of tissue
-absorption and transport of fatty acids and fats
-immunity

2

Where does the 'recognition' phase in the adaptive immune response take place?

secondary lymphoid organs

3

What are the secondary lymphoid organs?

lymph nodes, the spleen and mucosal associated lymphoid tissue

4

What are the primary lymphoid organs?

bone marrow and thymus

5

What happens in primary lymphoid tissue?

blood cells are produced and receive their early training

6

What happens at the thymus?

maturation of T cells that were generated in the bone marrow

7

What happens at the secondary lymphoid organs?

activation of lymphocytes by antigens

8

What does the spleen do?

filters blood of antigens, defective or worn out blood cells and microorganisms and contains many kinds of blood cells

9

What is a major feature of all secondary lymphoid organs except the spleen?

high endothelial venules

10

What is meant by 'high endothelial venules'?

'doorway' through which B and T cells enter the secondary lymphoid organs from the blood - essentially gaps between endothelial cells

11

What is an example of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue?

Peyer's patches

12

How do some lymphocytes become memory cells?

stimulation of naive lymphocytes by exposure to antigen

13

Where are B cells produced?

bone marrow

14

What do B cells mature into?

plasma cells

15

What do plasma cells do?

produce antibodies

16

What do B cells express?

surface immuoglobulin which is the antigen receptor for the B cell

17

Why is it more important to make T cells tolerant than B cells?

B cells cannot make antibodies without the help of T cells

18

What is an antigen?

any substance capable of triggering an immune response

19

What structures on antigens characterise the antigens to immune cells as being foreign?

epitopes which protrude from its surface

20

What are the basic features of an antibody (structurally)?

-made up of a heavy and a light chain
- has Fc region (stem bit)
- Y shaped

21

What are the 2 types of antibody light chain?

lambda and kappa and they have no effect on Ig class

22

What do heavy chains on antibodies define?

class of Ig

23

How many different classes of antibody are there?

5

24

What are the 5 classes of antibody and what is their function?

IgM - good at fixing complement and opsonisation
IgG- good opsoniser
IgA- protects mucosal surfaces, resistant to stomach acid
IgE- defends against parasites, causes anaphylactic shock and allergies
IgD- no known Ab function

25

What are the 2 ways B cells can be activated to produce antibodies?

- with T cell help
-without T cell help

26

What does T cell independent activation require?

huge numbers of B Cell Receptors to be clustered together by an antigen with a large number of repeated epitopes

27

What is generally the first type of antibody to be produced?

IgM

28

What is one reason why B cells are specific to one antigen?

they only produce one type of B cell receptor