Flashcards in Addiction I & II Deck (31):
The lifetime prevalence of alcohol dependence is _______________.
Family tree patterns of substance use show that ________________.
increase in relative risk occurs with closer degrees of relatedness of family member with substance use disorder
Twin and adoption studies show that _______________.
50% of the variance of substance use disorders are genetic
What has research on changes in reward processing shown?
That the basal level of dopamine decreases with repeated reward stimulation – that is, you need to use just to feel normal.
Research has shown that those with SUDs have a decreased ability to adapt to ________________.
reward-punishment reversal experiments
What is SBIRT?
Referral to Treatment
What single question is the most effective in assessing alcohol use disorders?
"How many times have you had more than four or five drinks in a day?"
Greater than 1 time is considered positive
Alcohol is metabolized via a two-step mechanism: __________________.
1) alcohol -> acetaldehyde (by alcohol dehydrogenase)
2) acetaldehyde -> ??? (by aldehyde dehydrogenase)
What are the side effects of disulfiram?
- metallic taste
- optic neuritis
- peripheral neuropathy
- psychotic symptoms
Whats are contraindications for antabuse?
- cognitive dysfunction
There is a long-term injection form of ______________.
Naltrexone's _______________ safety is unknown.
Acamprosate enhances _____________ activity.
______________ can lead to severe renal impairment.
True or false: someone who withdraws from opioids has opioid abuse.
False. Some people (such as cancer patients) are physically dependent on opioids but not psychologically dependent.
Methadone use has shown what effects?
- reduce use of heroin
- reduced harm
- increased employment
- reduced crime
- increased engagement in treatment
- save lives
- is more cost effective
Naltrexone treatment has been shown to be most effective in which populations?
Those with high contingencies: physicians, those on parole.
How many milligrams of nicotine are in one cigarette?
What is the fundamental assumption in motivational interviewing?
That the addicted person has some ambivalence about their addiction – that they want to quit.
Four things to keep in mind when doing a motivational interviews are _________________.
1) Express empathy: find something to sympathize with the patient and build on that – some are difficult people who've done bad things.
2) Roll with resistance: if they try to argue with you, don't take the bait.
3) Develop discrepancies: find something that doesn't make sense and ask them about it.
4) Support self-efficacy: go with things that work with the patient.
Describe some of the signs of substance use disorder.
Overall, they're broken into three main categories: physical dependence, cravings, and diminished capacity to stop. Here are specifics:
- Using more – or for longer periods – than intended.
- Using despite negative social consequences.
- Spending lots of time trying to get substance or recovering from substance effects.
- Using despite negative medical consequences.
There are 11 symptoms listed. What amount are needed for mild, moderate, and severe substance use disorders?
Severe: more than 5
By young adulthood, which gender is more likely to have SUDs?
Both ALTs and ASTs are likely to be elevated in alcohol intoxication, but one is likely to be higher. Which?
AST (Souses = aSt)
Hunger is a withdrawal symptom of which illicit drug?
Amphetamines and phencyclidine induce similar effects. Belligerence and psychosis are more typical of ____________, however.
Data shows that substance use disorders are often not _________________ by primary care physicians.
diagnosed or included in the differential
More than ________ drinks per week is considered at-risk for women, while more than ____________ drinks per week for men is considered at-risk.
"Deep bone pain" is a withdrawal symptom of ____________.
_____________ has been shown to double the quitting rates of cigarette smoking.