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MS2 - Nervous System > Addiction I & II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Addiction I & II Deck (31):
1

The lifetime prevalence of alcohol dependence is _______________.

12.5%

2

Family tree patterns of substance use show that ________________.

increase in relative risk occurs with closer degrees of relatedness of family member with substance use disorder

3

Twin and adoption studies show that _______________.

50% of the variance of substance use disorders are genetic

4

What has research on changes in reward processing shown?

That the basal level of dopamine decreases with repeated reward stimulation – that is, you need to use just to feel normal.

5

Research has shown that those with SUDs have a decreased ability to adapt to ________________.

reward-punishment reversal experiments

6

What is SBIRT?

Screening
Brief Intervention
Referral to Treatment

7

What single question is the most effective in assessing alcohol use disorders?

"How many times have you had more than four or five drinks in a day?"

Greater than 1 time is considered positive

8

Alcohol is metabolized via a two-step mechanism: __________________.

1) alcohol -> acetaldehyde (by alcohol dehydrogenase)
2) acetaldehyde -> ??? (by aldehyde dehydrogenase)

9

What are the side effects of disulfiram?

- metallic taste
- headaches
- drowsiness/fatigue
- optic neuritis
- peripheral neuropathy
- hepatitis
- psychotic symptoms

10

Whats are contraindications for antabuse?

- MI
- pregnancy
- cognitive dysfunction

11

There is a long-term injection form of ______________.

naltrexone (Vivitrol)

12

Naltrexone's _______________ safety is unknown.

lactation

13

Acamprosate enhances _____________ activity.

GABA

14

______________ can lead to severe renal impairment.

Acamprosate

15

True or false: someone who withdraws from opioids has opioid abuse.

False. Some people (such as cancer patients) are physically dependent on opioids but not psychologically dependent.

16

Methadone use has shown what effects?

- reduce use of heroin
- reduced harm
- increased employment
- reduced crime
- increased engagement in treatment
- save lives
- is more cost effective

17

Naltrexone treatment has been shown to be most effective in which populations?

Those with high contingencies: physicians, those on parole.

18

How many milligrams of nicotine are in one cigarette?

1 mg

19

What is the fundamental assumption in motivational interviewing?

That the addicted person has some ambivalence about their addiction – that they want to quit.

20

Four things to keep in mind when doing a motivational interviews are _________________.

1) Express empathy: find something to sympathize with the patient and build on that – some are difficult people who've done bad things.

2) Roll with resistance: if they try to argue with you, don't take the bait.

3) Develop discrepancies: find something that doesn't make sense and ask them about it.

4) Support self-efficacy: go with things that work with the patient.

21

Describe some of the signs of substance use disorder.

Overall, they're broken into three main categories: physical dependence, cravings, and diminished capacity to stop. Here are specifics:

- Using more – or for longer periods – than intended.
- Using despite negative social consequences.
- Spending lots of time trying to get substance or recovering from substance effects.
- Using despite negative medical consequences.

22

There are 11 symptoms listed. What amount are needed for mild, moderate, and severe substance use disorders?

Mild: 2-3
Moderate 4-5
Severe: more than 5

23

By young adulthood, which gender is more likely to have SUDs?

Males

24

Both ALTs and ASTs are likely to be elevated in alcohol intoxication, but one is likely to be higher. Which?

AST (Souses = aSt)

25

Hunger is a withdrawal symptom of which illicit drug?

Amphetamines

26

Amphetamines and phencyclidine induce similar effects. Belligerence and psychosis are more typical of ____________, however.

phencyclidine

27

Data shows that substance use disorders are often not _________________ by primary care physicians.

diagnosed or included in the differential

28

More than ________ drinks per week is considered at-risk for women, while more than ____________ drinks per week for men is considered at-risk.

7; 14

29

"Deep bone pain" is a withdrawal symptom of ____________.

opioids

30

_____________ has been shown to double the quitting rates of cigarette smoking.

Bupropion

31

In a motivational interview, what is OARS?

Open-ended questions
Affirmations
Reflections
Summary

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