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Flashcards in ADHD Deck (49):
1

What is ADHD characterised by?

Inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity

2

How many school age children does ADHD effect?

5 to 7%

3

What is ADHD more heritable than?

Depression
IQ
Schizophrenia

4

How many students with ADHD drop out of school?

32-40%

5

What percentage of children with ADHD have few or no friends?

50-70%

6

How many more times likely are people with ADHD likely to commit a crime?

3 times

7

What type of treatment did the US study show is best for ADHD?

Methylphenidate

8

What have the effects of ADHD been compared to?

Frontal lobe lesions

9

Name two examples of monoamine reuptake inhibitors

Atomoxetine
Bupropion

10

What type of drug is Atomoxetine?

Monoamine reuptake inhibitor (NA selective)

11

Name a monoamine releasing agent

Amphetamine

12

What drug class is Amphetamine?

Monoamine releasing agent (NA and DA)

13

Name a stimulant reuptake inhibitor

Methylphenidate

14

What drug class is methylphenidate?

Stimulant reuptakeinhibitor (NA and DA)

15

Name an a2-adrenoceptor agonist

Guanfacine

16

Is Bupropion dopamine selective or noradrenaline selective?

Dopamine

17

Are releasing agents big or small?

Small

18

What are releasing agents similar in structure and shape to?

Monoamines

19

Are reuptake inhibitors big or small?

Big

20

What are transporters like?

Vacuum

21

How is dopamine removed in the striatum?

DAT

22

How is dopamine removed in the PFC?

NET

23

What does microdialysis record?

Residual efflux = what is being released minus what is being removed by the transporters or catabolism

24

What different length proves can you get for microdialysis?

1mm, 2mm or 4mm

25

Is Atomoxetine selective for NA or DA?

NA

26

What effect does Atomoxetine have in the PFC?

Increases DA and NA

27

What effect does Atomoetine have in the striatum?

No effect on dopamine

28

Does Atomoxetine have a dose effect ceiling?

Yes

29

Does Atomoxetine have a slow or fast onset of action?

Slow

30

Are the effects of Atomoxetine prolonged or short?

Prolonged

31

Is GBR12909 dopamine or noradrenaline selective?

Dopamine

32

What effect does GBR12909 have in the PFC?

Practically no effect

33

Does amphetamine have a rapid or slow onset of action?

Rapid

34

Does amphetamine have a dose effect ceiling?

No

35

Do the effects of amphetamine wear off quickly or slowly?

Quickly

36

What does methylphenidate block?

DAT and NET

37

Does methylphenidate have a rapid or slow onset?

Rapid

38

Does methylphenidate have a dose effect ceiling?

No

39

Are the effects of methylphenidate short or long term?

Short term

40

What is lisdexamphetamine catabolised by?

Red blood cells

41

What is lisdexamphetamine broken down into?

L-Lysine and d-Amphetamine

42

The PK is independent of what for lisdexamphetamine?

Route of administration

43

Why are there delays in lisdexamphetamines effect?

It is a prodrug

44

What are the adverse effects of Atomoxetine?

Somnolence
Increase HR/BP
Nausea/vom
Abdominal pain
Decreased appetite
Decreased body weight
Decreased growth rate

45

What are the adverse effects of drugs like methylphenidate, amphetamine and lisdexamphetamine?

Insomnia
Increase BP/HR
Nausea/vomiting
Abdominal pain
Decreased appetite
Decreased body weight
Decreased growth rate

46

Are dopamine and noradrenaline neurones long or short?

Long

47

Where are the cell bodies of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurones found?

Hindbrain region

48

What percentage of neurotransmitters are taken back up into the neurone by transporters?

70%

49

Which have more powerful actions, releasing agents or reuptake inhibitors?

Releasing agents