Flashcards in ADJECTIVES and DETERMINERS Deck (22)
What is the function of an Adjective and how does it modify?
Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns and function to answer questions. They clarify, describe, delimit, expand, and qualify the words they modify.
Give an example of how an Adjective modifies the answer to a question. (3)
What kind of challenge? - a difficult challenge
Which challenge? - a new challenge
How many challenges? - several
Name two types of Adjective and function.
Attributive, i.e. it describes the noun,
Predicative, i.e. as a complement to qualify the subject of the sentence (i.e. predicate)
Where in a sentence is an Attributive Adjective placed? Give examples.
Can be placed before of after the word they modify.
before; e.g. part-time teacher, happy goblin
after; e.g proof positive, body corporate
Where in the sentence is a Predicative Adjective placed?
They come after linking verbs (to be, to become, to seem, to appear), e.g. the goblin seemed happy, the teacher was part-time
Name 4 types of words that can function as Adjectives and give examples.
Dates; the June 2014 financial statement
Numbers; four times (cardinal), fourth girl (ordinal = sequence)
Past and present participles; the delighted children (past), the smirking gruffalow (present)
Infinitives; We cannot decide which pie to choose
What is a 'Degree' of an adjective? Give examples.
Adjective can be 'marked' to take a Positive (e.g.bright), Comparative (e.g. brighter) or superlative (e.g. brightest) form. There irregular forms too, such as - good, better, best.
What is an Absolute Adjective
Some Adjectives cannot be marked to show a degree, such as - eternal, fatal, perfect, etc.
What is Adjectival sequencing?
The use of several adjectives to describe a noun
What is the 'Royal Order of Adjectives'? List the order.
A sequence of adjectives has to conform to a specific order. (Oh Silly Susan Asks Colin Or Makes Quilts)
1. Observation (lovely, boring)
2. Size (tiny, round)
3. Shape (round, long)
4. Age (young, ancient)
5. Colour (red, blue)
6. Origin (Japanese, English)
7. Material (oak, cotton)
8. Qualifier (unlikely, probable)
What is the exception to putting the sequnce of adjectives in the 'Royal' order? Give example.
When an adjective is emphasising a noun it comes first.
e.g. I want the blue old tee-shirt, not the red one.
When is a comma used, or not used with a sequence of adjectives? Give example.
Do not put a comma after the determiner or before the noun. e.g. six small apples.
Use a comma when the adjectives are from the same sequence category. e.g. the long, rectangular wooden box.
When should a comma be used instead of 'and'? Give example.
Use a comma if 'and' can be placed between the adjectives and if the adjectives can be reversed and still make sense.
e.g. some sneaky and hungry goblins stole my food = some sneaky, hungry goblins stole my food.
What is a Phrasal (Compound) Adjective?
A Phrasal Adjective is a compound of two or more attributive words: That is, more than one word that together modify a noun.
How are Phrasal (Compound) Adjectives hyphenated? Give examples of each.
Phrasal adjectives take a hyphen when coming before the noun, but not after it.
e.g. 30-cent cone, cone is 30 cents
wine-dark sea, sea is wine dark
When is a Phrasal (Compound) Adjective not hyphenated even when it comes before the noun?
Not hyphenated between Proper Nouns (e.g. Monty Python)
What happens if two Phrasal Adjectives share the same ending? Give example.
If two Phrasal Adjectives share the same ending, the first ending is dropped.
e.g. the eight- or nine-year old boy
What does morphing mean in relation to Adjectives? Give examples.
An Adjective 'morphs' to a Noun e.g. a 'post-mortem' when referring to a post-motem examination, or 'collectibles' as in a collectible object
'morphs' to a Verb e.g. from Fonz is a pretty 'cool' guy to remember to 'cool' the drinks
What is a Determiner? Give examples of types (5)
A Determiner introduces a noun or noun phrase, but it is not an adjective.
They can be Articles (a, an, the), Possessives (my, your, our, etc), Demonstratives (this, that, these, those), Numbers (cardinal, ordinal), Indefinites (all, either, both, few, etc)
What information do determiners provide?
They provide information regarding possession, definiteness, specificty or quantity.
Why are Determiners not Adjectives?
Because they mean nothing when they stand alone, wheras an Adjective means something.