Flashcards in Adolescence Deck (72):
What are 2 primary characteristics of Millennials?
Their ethnic diversity
Their connection to technology
What % of today’s adolescents say their friends include people from diverse ethnic groups?
60% (Teenage Research Unlimited, 2004)
What % of U.S. 18- to 29-year-olds report dating someone from a different ethnic group?
60% (Jones, 2005)
Approximately what % of U.S. high school seniors engage in alcohol abuse?
Nearly what % of U.S. adolescent girls become pregnant by the age of 20?
Adolescent obesity has increased how many fold in recent decades?
How do many adults respond to evidence of youths’ positive accomplishments—that a majority of adolescents participate in community service—for example?
They deny or anomolize the facts (Youniss and Ruth, 2002)
According to Offer (1988) what % of adolescents (from U.S., Australia, Bangladesh, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Taiwan, Turkey, and West Germany) contradicted the storm-and-stress view of adolescence?
73 percent (Offer, 1988)?
According to Daniel Offer's 1988 study, what were the 10 characteristics of adolescents that challenged the storm-and-stress view?
(CC's PVC SHOPE)
Capable of exercising self-control
Confident in their sexuality
Positive feelings towards their families
Value work and school
Capacity to cope with life stresses
Optimistic about future
Positive self image
What are the 5 C's of positive youth development? What is the 6th C that often emerges when the 5 C's are present? What does the presence of the 5 C's suggest about youth development?
Contribution (positively engaged in society)
What 2 groups are projected to increase the most by 2100? What is the percentage of increase of these 2 groups?
Asian Americans (more than 500%)
Latinos (nearly 400%)
What percentage of U.S. 15-year-olds reported having meaningful relationships outside of their family (Search Institute, 2010)?
The more years 7- to 13-year-olds spent living in poverty, the higher their ??? were elevated (Evans & Kim, 2007).
physiological indices of stress
In 2013, what percentage of U.S. children and adolescents lived in poverty?
Specifically African Americans? Specifically Latinos? (Proctor, 2014).
Latino: 23.5 %
What are the 3 chief physical manifestations of puberty?
1. Rapid acceleration of growth, specifically height and weight.
2. Development of primary sex characteristics (gonads, hormonal changes) ultimately enabling reproduction
3. Development of secondary sex characteristics (genitals, breasts, pubic, facial, and body hair)
Puberty is the result of the development of what 2 systems?
Central nervous system
When does puberty begin (trick question)?
Puberty may appear to come on suddenly, judging from its external signs, but in fact it is part of a gradual process that begins at conception.
What is the function of the endocrine system during puberty?
It produces, circulates, and regulates levels of hormones
What are hormones?
Highly specialized substances secreted by one or more endocrine glands and then enter the bloodstream and travel throughout the body.
What are glands?
Organs that stimulate particular parts of the body to respond in specific ways to particular hormones.
What are gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons?
Specialized neurons that are activated by certain pubertal hormones.
Where does the endocrine system receive its instructions from to increase or decrease circulating levels of particular hormones?
The central nervous system
In what way is the endocrine system like a thermostat?
Hormonal levels are “set” at a certain point, which may differ depending on the stage of development. When a particular hormonal level in your body dips below the endocrine system’s set point for that hormone, secretion of the hormone increases; when the level reaches the set point, secretion temporarily stops. Hormone can be adjusted up or down, depending on environmental or internal bodily conditions.
At the onset of puberty, a feedback loop ensues. What are the 3 components of this feedback loop?
What are gonads?
Glands that release sex hormones: in males, the testes; in females, the ovaries.
What is the pituitary gland?
Responsible for regulating levels of hormones in the body.
What is the hypothalamus?
Part of the brain that controls the pituitary gland, and where there is a concentration of GnRH neurons.
According to Kuhn (2009), what is the most important cognitive change in adolescence?
Improvements in executive functions
What 3 factors reduce the risk of becoming an adolescent mother?
1) Living with both biological parents (PARENTS)
2) Being involved in school activities (SCHOOL)
3) Participating in a religious organizations (COMMUNITY)
What 6 factors substantially increase the risk of becoming an adolescent mother?
1) Being raised in poverty by a single or adolescent mother (PARENT)
2) Having a mother who is cold and uninvolved (PARENT)
3) Low school achievement and dropping out of school (SCHOOL)
4)Significant family problems (e.g., death of a parent, drug or alcohol abuse in the family) (HOME)
5) Having an older adolescent sibling who is sexually active or is a parent him- or herself (SIBLING)
6) Having many friends who are sexually active (PEERS)
Despite the common stereotype that adolescence is a time of inevitable and escalating conflict between parents and teens and alienation from each other, a good deal of research has shown what to the contrary?
In a study of approximately 1000 U.S. adolescents from immigrant and native-born families of Mexican, Chinese, Filipino, and European backgrounds, there was little increase in reported conflict between parents and their children from 6th to 10th grades.
In a minority of families, parent–child conflict in adolescence runs hotter and deeper. Why the conflict and what are the contents of the conflict?
WHO: When teens start puberty earlier than their peers do.
WHY: This may be because early maturation widens the gap between how much autonomy the adolescents themselves think they deserve and how much autonomy their parents are willing to grant them.
WHAT: Contents often include issues such as sex, drugs, and choice of friends
What 3 aspects of the parent-child relationship decline as children transition into adolescence? (All are developmentally advantageous)
1) Time together (more time with peers)
2) Support (parents are still primary source)
3) Closeness (teens seeks more autonomy)
The capacity to overcome adversity through flexible adaptation to environmental demands
Define effortful control
The capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response.
Define executive functions
An umbrella-like concept that encompasses a cluster of higher order cognitive processes connected to the development of the prefrontal cortex
biologically-based individual differences in: A) emotional reactivity
B) motor reactivity
C) attentional reactivity
D) self regulation.
Temperament characteristics tend to be consistent across situations and relatively stable over time.
Define social role theory
Psychological gender differences result from the contrasting, society-imposed roles of women and men. These roles are characterized by and perpetuated because of power and status differentials and traditional divisions of labor.
What triggers the puberty process?
Puberty begins when several different signals—genetic as well as environmental—instruct the brain to change the set point.
By the time the stage adolescence is finish what are the muscle-to-fat ratios of men compared to women?
Adolescence is the stage of greatest risk for the development of what?
eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia
Individuals are considered obese if their BMI is at or above the ???th percentile for people of the same age and gender, at great risk for obesity if their BMI is at or above the ???th percentile, and overweight if their BMI is at or above the ???th percentile (Zametkin, Zoon, Klein, & Munson, 2004).
What percentage of adolescents in the U.S. are obese? (Ogden, Carroll, & Flegal, 2008)
What percentage of adolescents in the U.S. are at great risk for obesity? (a rate that increased substantially between 1970 and 2000 but has since leveled off (Spruijt-Metz, 2011).
Compared to their peers in the mid-1960s, the average 15-year-old boy today is how many pounds heavier, and the average 15-year-old girl is how many pounds heavier? (increases that are far greater than could possibly be due to changes in height)
What percentage of adolescents have a high degree of conflict with their parents? (conflict levels are moderate or low for a substantial majority)
20-25% (translates into 4 to 5 million American families that encounter serious, highly stressful parent-adolescent conflict.)
What percentage of adults describe themselves as securely attached?
60-80% (Zeifman & Hazan, 2008)
Approximately what percentage of American adolescents have one or more siblings?
80% (Dunn, 2007, 2015)
How much time do adolescent siblings spend with each other?
One study found that adolescent siblings spent an average of 10 hours a week together (Tucker, McHale, & Crouter, 2001). In Mexican American families, adolescent siblings spend even more time together—more than 17 hours a week (Updegraff & others, 2005).
Do parents usually favor one sibling over others, and does such favoritism make a difference in an adolescent’s development?
One study of 384 adolescent sibling pairs revealed that 65 percent of their mothers and 70 percent of their fathers showed favoritism toward one sibling (Shebloski, Conger, & Widaman, 2005). When favoritism toward one sibling occurred, it was linked to lower self-esteem and sadness in the less-favored sibling.
The United States has a higher percentage of what kind of families than most other countries
What percent of U.S. children born to married parents will experience their parents’ divorce?
40% (Hetherington & Stanley-Hagan, 2002).
In the longitudinal study conducted by Hetherington and her colleagues, what percent of children from divorced families had emotional problems? What did that percent decrease to in emerging adulthood? In this study, what percent of children and emerging adults from nondivorced families had emotional problems?
20 years after their parents had divorced when they were children, approximately what
percent of adults concluded that their parents’ decision to divorce had been a wise one?
80% (Ahrons, 2004)
What percent of adolescents in divorced families, compared with what percent in nondivorced families, become disengaged from their families, spending as little time as possible at home and in interaction with family members?
(Hetherington & Kelly, 2002)
Custodial mothers’ income decreases approximately what percent from their predivorce income, in comparison to a decrease of only 10 percent for custodial fathers?
25 to 50% (Emery, 1999)
Approximately what percent of the adolescents in long-established simple stepfamilies described their relationships with their stepparents as “close” or “very close?”
More than 75% (Hetherington, 2006)
What percent of U.S. mothers with a child under the age of 5 is employed?
What percent of U.S. mothers with a child from 6 to 17 years of age is employed?
More than 50%
More than 66% (Santrock Adolescent Textbook)
Approximately what percent of lesbian couples are parents?
Approximately what percent of of gay couples are parents?
How many gay and lesbian parents are in the United States today.
More than 1 million (Santrock Adolescent Textbook)
Adolescents in the highest 10 percent of viewing
sexually explicit TV shows were how many times more likely to engage in sexual intercourse compared to those in the lowest 10 percent?
Twice! (Collins & others, 2004). The results held regardless of whether the exposure to explicit sex involved sexual behavior or just talk about sex.
A recent national study of 13- to 18-year-olds found that what percent reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves?
7% (Ybarra & Mitchell, 2014)
In this study, sharing sexual photos was linked to a wide range of sexual behaviors including oral sex and vaginal sex.
In a U.S. national survey conducted in 2013, what percent of twelfth-graders reported having experienced sexual intercourse, compared to what percent of ninth-graders (Kann & others, 2014).
By age 20, what percent of U.S. youth report having engaged in sexual intercourse?
77% (Dworkin & Santelli, 2007).
What percent of twelfth-graders reported that they were currently sexually active?
What percent of eleventh-graders reported that they were currently sexually active?
What percent of tenth-graders reported that they were currently sexually active?
What percent of ninth-graders reported that they were currently sexually active?
(Kann & others, 2014).
What percent of African Americans, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites said they had experienced sexual intercourse?
61% (African Americans)
44% (non-latino whites)
(Kann & others, 2014)
What percent of African Americans, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites reported having their
first sexual experience before 13 years of age?
14% (African Americans)
3% (non-latino whites)
(Kann & others, 2014)
What percent of U.S. 15- to 19-year-old boys and what percent of girls of the same age
said they had engaged in oral sex?
(National Center for Health Statistics, 2002)
By 2035, children of color are expected to constitute what percent of the U.S. school population? (Referred to by some as the browning of America)
In a recent school-based intervention study, Oyserman et al. (2001) found that African American students who were exposed to a curriculum that encouraged them to view ??? as an important component of their ??? had fewer ??? and higher ??? than did their nonexposed counterparts.
What are 2 strong predictors of bullying?
Endorsement of normative beliefs approving of bullying
According to Rothbart and Bates (1998) what are the 3 components of effortful control?
1) to inhibit impulses and prevent disruptive behaviors (inhibitory control)
2) to focus and maintain attention despite distractions (attention control)
3) to initiate and complete tasks that have long-term value, even when they are unpleasant (activation control)