Adolescence and Early Adulthood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Adolescence and Early Adulthood Deck (13)
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Define adolescence.

The phase between childhood and adulthood, beginning with pubertal development.


Describe the phases of adolescence.

Early: 11-14 years old
Middle: 14-17 years old
Late: 18+ years


Define puberty.

The process of physical changes through which a child’s body matures into an adult body that is capable of sexual reproduction.


Define adrenarche.

An increase in adrenal androgen production.
This occurs prior to onset of puberty (between the ages of 6 and 10). During adrenarche the adrenal cortex secretes increased levels of androgens (DHEA, DHEAS).
Manifests clinically as the appearance of axillary and pubic hair, usually about age 8.


Define menarche.

The onset of a girl's first menstrual cycle.


Summarise the changes in the onset of puberty since the mid-19th century.

Puberty has been starting earlier and earlier. Every decade from 1840 – 1950 has shown a drop of 4 months in the age of Western European girls' menarche.
Could be due to increased nutrition and increased weight of children.


At what ages do boys and girls tend to peak during puberty?

Boys - 14 years old
Girls - 12 years old


List some of the hormones involved in pubertal development.

- GnRH
- LH
- testosterone
- oestradiol
- GH (IGF-1)
- leptin


Which psychological changes accompany adolescence?

- cognition (morality)
- identity
- increased self-awareness


What is Plaget's cognitive development?

1. Sensorimotor: 0-2 years - putting objects in hands, do not understand object permanence
2. Preoperational: 2-7 years - some logical reasoning
3. Concrete operational: 7-11 years - developed logical reasoning
4. Formal operational: 11+ years - abstract thoughts and hypotheses


Which social changes accompany adolescence?

- family (parental surveillance, confiding)
- peers
- romantic relationships
- social role (education, occupation etc)


What is Kohlberg's theory of moral development?

1. Pre-conventional - punishment avoidance
2. Conventional - pleasing others, awareness of social order and using this as judgement
3. Post-conventional - abstract thinking, own personal moral compass


What does Erikson's developmental stages say about adolescence?

Adolescents may experience internal conflict - identity vs. confusion.