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Flashcards in Adult Medical Surgical Nursing Deck (33):
1

1 Kg (2.2lbs) of body weight is approximate to ? L of fluid

1 Liter

2

Fluid volume deficit - most common is ? dehydration

isotonic

3

Fluid volume deficit (FVD) manifestation

weight loss, increased heart rate and respirations, thready pulse, weakness, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, Late signs: oliguria, decreased CVP, flattened neck veins

4

FVD diagnostic procedures

serum electrolytes ( ) BUN ( 10-20) creatinine (0.5 - 1.2) Hct ( M-42%-52% F-37% - 47%) - urine specific gravity and osmolarity Medications = Electrolyte replacement and IV fluids

5

Isotonic solutions

Normal saline 0.9%, Lactated ringers, 5% dextrose in water D5W

6

Hypotonic solutions

0.45% NS, 2.5% dextrose in 0.45% saline

7

Hypertonic solutions

10% dextrose in water, 50% dextrose in water, 5% dextrose in 0.9% saline, 5% dextrose in 0.45% saline, 5% dextrose in LR

8

Fluid volume excess (FVE) manifestations

cough, dyspnea, crackles, increased BP, tachypnea and tachycardia, bounding pulse, weight gain, increased urine output, edema,

9

Diagnostic procedures for FVE

Serum electorylytes, BUN(10-20) creatinine (0.5-1.2) Hct, urine specific gravity and osmolatiry, chest x-ray - use semi fowlers positions and repo every 2 hours

10

Major intracellular electrolytes

potassium, phosphorus, magnesium

11

major extracellular electrolytes

sodium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate

12

muscle weakness, cramping, fatigue, N&V, irritability, confusion, decrased bowels, paresthesia, dysrhythmias, flat and or inverted T waves (electro imbalance )

Potassium (hypokalemia)

13

peaked T waves, ventricular dysrhythmias, muscle twitching and paresthesia, ascending muscle weakness, increased bowels (electro imbalance)

Potassium (hyperkalemia)

14

weakness, lethargy, confusion, seizures, headaches, anorexia, N&V, muscle cramps, twitching, hypotension, tachycardia, weight gain edema (E.I)

Sodium ( hyponatremia)

15

fever, swollen, dry tongue, sticky mucous membrane, hallucinations, lethargy, restlessness, irritability, seizures, tahycarida, hypertension, hyperreflexia twitching, pulmonary edeam (E.I)

Sodium (hypernatremia)

16

tetany, cramps, paresthesias, dysrhythmais, trousseau's sign, chvostek's sign, seizures, hyperreflexia, impaired clotting time (E.I)

Calcium ( hypocalcemia)

17

muscle weakness, hypercalciuria/kidney stones, dysrhythmias, lethargy/coma, hyporeflexia, pathologic fractures, flank pain, deep bone pain, polyuria, polydipsia, dehydrations, hypertension, N&V (E.I)

calcium ( hypercalcemia)

18

paresthesias, dysrhthmias, Trousseau's sign, chvostek's sign, agitation, confusion, hyperreflexia, hypertension, insomnia, irritability, anorexia, N&V, dysphagia (E.I)

Magnesium (hypomagnesemia)

19

hypotension, drowsiness, bradycardia, bradypnea, coma, cardiac arrest, hyporeflexia, N&V, facial flushing (E.I)

Magnesium (Hypermagnesemia)

20

paresthesia, muscle weakness, bone pain and deformities, chest pain, confusion, seizures, nystagmus (E.I)

phosphorus (hypophosphatemia)

21

tetany, cramps, paresthesias, dysrhythmias, Trousseau's sign, chvostek's sign, hyperreflexia, anorexia, N&V, sot tissue calcifications (E.I)

Phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia)

22

Metabolic Acidosis

Decreased PH, Normal PCO2, Decreased HCO3

23

Metabolic Alkalosis

Increased PH, Normal PCO2, Increased HCO3

24

Respiratory Acidosis

Decreased PH, Increased PCO2, Normal HCO3

25

Respiratory Alkalosis

Increased PH, Decreased PCO2, Normal HCO3

26

ROME

Respiratory Opposite (PH & PCO3) - Metabolic Equal (PH & HCO3)

27

pH level

7.35 - 7.45

28

PCO2

35 - 45

29

HCO3

21 - 28

30

(acid base Imb) bradycardia, weak pulses, hypotension, tachypnea, flaccid paralysis, confusion, hypreflexia, lethargy, warm flushed dry skin, Kussmauls respirations.

Metabolic acidosis - decreased pH and HCO3

31

(acid base Imb) dizziness, paresthesieas, hypertonic muscles, decreased respirations

metabolic alkalosis - increased pH and HCO3

32

(acid base Imb) dizziness, palpitations, muscle twitching, convulsions

respiratory acidosis - decreased PH and Increased PCO2

33

acid base Imb) tachypnea, anxiety, tetany, paresthesias, palpitations, chest pain

Respiratory alkalosis - increased PH and Decreased PCO2