Adult Nutrition Flashcards Preview

GI > Adult Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Adult Nutrition Deck (31):
1

What are some states of increased calorie needs?

Infection
Critical illness
Wound healing
Chronic illness
Cancer

2

How should macronutrients be distributed in adults?

Carbs: 45-65%
Proteins: 10-35%
Fats: 20-35%

3

What are the two types of dietary fiber?

Soluble: forms gel-like substance in intestines, sources include oats, barley, fruits, veggies, dried peas/beans

Insoluble: increases stool bulk; sources include bran, vegetables with skins, skins on fruits

4

When would you tell someone to follow a low protein diet?

Moderate protein restriction with kidney disease -- w/o hemodialysis

5

What do monounsaturated fats and omega 3 polyunsaturated fats do for us?

Decreases LDL cholesterol
Decreases inflammation
Improves HDL cholesterol

6

What are some of the diagnostic criteria for malnutrition?

Insufficient energy intake
Weight loss
Loss of muscle mass
Loss of subcutaneous fat
Localized or generalized fluid accumulation
Diminished functional status as measured by handgrip strength

7

Symptoms of Thiamin deficiency

Decreased appetite, fatigue, peripheral neuropathy
Wernicke Korsakoff: mental confusion, ataxia, uncoordinated eye movements
Dry/Wed Beriberi -- severe deficiency: advanced neuromuscular symptoms, edema, heart failure

8

What is the adequate intake level for Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5)?

5 mg/day
-Deficiency/toxicity rare

9

What micronutrient is synthesized from tryptophan?

Niacin/Vitamin B3 -- 1 mg niacin per 60 mg tryptophan

10

Symptoms of Niacin deficiency

Glossitis
Pellagra: three D's - Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia

11

Symptoms of Niacin toxicity

Histamine induced flushing, liver damage

12

Symptoms of Pyridoxine deficiency

Irritability, nervousness, depression, peripheral neuropathy
Microcytic anemia

13

Symptoms of Pyridoxine toxicity

Neurotoxicity, photosensitivity

14

Symptoms of Riboflavin deficiency

Cheilitis, glossitis, dermatitis, anemia

15

Symptoms of Biotin deficiency

Hair loss

16

Adequate intake of biotin per day

30 mcg

17

Symptoms of Folate deficiency

Macrocytic or megaloblastic anemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, red tongue, cognitive decline, neural tube defects

18

Where do we get dietary sources of vitamin B12?

Only animal sources
Meat and meat products

19

Symptoms of cobalamin/Vit B12 deficiency?

Megaloblastic anemia, pernicious anemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, neurologic deterioration

20

What is the best indicator test for vit B12?

Methylmalonyl CoA

21

The daily dietary need of what micronutrient is increased for smokers?

Ascorbic acid - Vitamin C

22

What are some symptoms of Vit C deficiency?

Easy bruising, petechiae, decreased immunocompetence

Scurvy: hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis, hypochondiasis, hemotologic abnormalities

23

What are some symptoms of vit C toxicity?

Hyperoxaluria -- increase risk for renal oxalate stones
Diarrhea
Iron overdose

Upper limit is 2000 mg/day

24

What is a symptom of Vit E deficiency?

Neuromuscular degeneration -- rare

25

Symptoms of Vit A deficiency?

Night blindness, poor growth, xerophthalmia, follicular hyperkeratosis

26

Symptoms of Vit A toxicity?

Excessive intake of retinol --> very low risk of toxicity from carotenoids, anorexia, dry itchy skin, hair loss, abnormal liver function, fetal malformations

27

Symptoms of Magnesium deficiency?

Muscle spasms, hypocalcemia, bone resorption

28

Symptoms of Copper deficiency?

Anemia, neutropenia, leukopenia, Menke's syndrome

29

Symptoms of Phosphorus deficiency?

Renal abnormalities

30

Symptoms of Zinc deficiency?

Rash, anemia, hypoguesia, delayed wound healing, alopecia

31

What is the recommended daily intake of sodium?

51, AA, chronic disease