Flashcards in Adult Nutrition Deck (31):
What are some states of increased calorie needs?
How should macronutrients be distributed in adults?
What are the two types of dietary fiber?
Soluble: forms gel-like substance in intestines, sources include oats, barley, fruits, veggies, dried peas/beans
Insoluble: increases stool bulk; sources include bran, vegetables with skins, skins on fruits
When would you tell someone to follow a low protein diet?
Moderate protein restriction with kidney disease -- w/o hemodialysis
What do monounsaturated fats and omega 3 polyunsaturated fats do for us?
Decreases LDL cholesterol
Improves HDL cholesterol
What are some of the diagnostic criteria for malnutrition?
Insufficient energy intake
Loss of muscle mass
Loss of subcutaneous fat
Localized or generalized fluid accumulation
Diminished functional status as measured by handgrip strength
Symptoms of Thiamin deficiency
Decreased appetite, fatigue, peripheral neuropathy
Wernicke Korsakoff: mental confusion, ataxia, uncoordinated eye movements
Dry/Wed Beriberi -- severe deficiency: advanced neuromuscular symptoms, edema, heart failure
What is the adequate intake level for Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5)?
What micronutrient is synthesized from tryptophan?
Niacin/Vitamin B3 -- 1 mg niacin per 60 mg tryptophan
Symptoms of Niacin deficiency
Pellagra: three D's - Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia
Symptoms of Niacin toxicity
Histamine induced flushing, liver damage
Symptoms of Pyridoxine deficiency
Irritability, nervousness, depression, peripheral neuropathy
Symptoms of Pyridoxine toxicity
Symptoms of Riboflavin deficiency
Cheilitis, glossitis, dermatitis, anemia
Symptoms of Biotin deficiency
Adequate intake of biotin per day
Symptoms of Folate deficiency
Macrocytic or megaloblastic anemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, red tongue, cognitive decline, neural tube defects
Where do we get dietary sources of vitamin B12?
Only animal sources
Meat and meat products
Symptoms of cobalamin/Vit B12 deficiency?
Megaloblastic anemia, pernicious anemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, neurologic deterioration
What is the best indicator test for vit B12?
The daily dietary need of what micronutrient is increased for smokers?
Ascorbic acid - Vitamin C
What are some symptoms of Vit C deficiency?
Easy bruising, petechiae, decreased immunocompetence
Scurvy: hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis, hypochondiasis, hemotologic abnormalities
What are some symptoms of vit C toxicity?
Hyperoxaluria -- increase risk for renal oxalate stones
Upper limit is 2000 mg/day
What is a symptom of Vit E deficiency?
Neuromuscular degeneration -- rare
Symptoms of Vit A deficiency?
Night blindness, poor growth, xerophthalmia, follicular hyperkeratosis
Symptoms of Vit A toxicity?
Excessive intake of retinol --> very low risk of toxicity from carotenoids, anorexia, dry itchy skin, hair loss, abnormal liver function, fetal malformations
Symptoms of Magnesium deficiency?
Muscle spasms, hypocalcemia, bone resorption
Symptoms of Copper deficiency?
Anemia, neutropenia, leukopenia, Menke's syndrome
Symptoms of Phosphorus deficiency?
Symptoms of Zinc deficiency?
Rash, anemia, hypoguesia, delayed wound healing, alopecia