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Flashcards in Advanced Airway Deck (49):
0

What are the structures of the upper airway?

Nasal cavity
Oral cavity
Pharynx
Larynx

1

What are the structures of the lower airway?

Trachea
Bronchi
Alveoli

2

What is the most immediate measure of gas exchange?

Capnography

3

What is respiration vs. ventilation?

Respiration is gas exchange whereas ventilation is the mechanical movement of the air

4

Where is the site of most aspirated foreign bodies?

The right mainstream bronchi

5

What is the sac that covers the lung?

the pleura

6

Where is the site of cellular respiration?

Capillaries

7

_______ is the pressure exerted by each component of gas mixture.

Partial pressure

8

____ is the movement of air from high concentration to low concentration.

Diffusion

9

___ is the main part of the organ

Parenchyma

10

What is the connective tissue that covers the lung?

Pleura

11

What are two causes of decreased hemoglobin?

Anemia & hemorrhage

12

What is the normal ventilation rate for an adult

12 to 20

13

What is the normal rate for expired CO2?

35-45

14

What is the main respiratory center in the body?

Medulla

15

The _____ reflex tells you when you've inhaled enough air.

Herring-Brewers

16

What measures the amount of chemicals in the blood?

Chemoreceptors

17

Deep and fast respirations are known as _____.

Kussmal respirations

18

Diabetic ketoacidosis pts normally have what type of respirations.

Kussmal

19

Cheyne-stokes respirations are usually _____

Really fast then really slow

20

What type of patients normally have cheyne-stokes respirations?

Brain stem injuries

21

Biot's respirations are usually what?

Really fast then periods of apnea

22

What type of patients have biots respirations?

Patients with high intracranial pressure

23

____ is the stiffness/flexibility of lung tissue.

Compliance

24

The higher the respiratory rate, the ___ the end tidal CO2.

Lower

25

What type of airway is inserted blindly but does not enter the glottis?

Extraglottic

26

Some EGAs sit in the esophagus (which places it behind the vocal cords). These are referred to as…

Retroglottic airway

27

Other EGAs sit above the vocal cords. These are called…

Supraglottic airways

28

What is the name of the instrument used for lifting the tongue and epiglottis so you can see the vocal cords?

Laryngoscope

29

The structure that the Mac blade fits into is called the…

Vallecula

30

You inflate the cuff on the ET Tube with how many mL of air?

10mL

31

What tools are used to remove foreign bodies in the airway?

Magill forceps

32

What are indications of CPAP?

Pulmonary edema
Near-drowning
Pneumonia
COPD (inflammation)
Asthma (bronchoconstriction)

33

What Are advantages to CPAP?

Non-invasive
Easily adjusted & discontinued
Rare complications
Doesn't require sedation
Fairly comfortable

34

What are contraindications for CPAP?

Respiratory arrest
Decreased LOC (unable to protect airway)
Trauma/pneumothorax
Active vomiting
Systolic BP < 100

35

CPAP is contraindicated in _______ patients because we are increasing ________ pressure which puts more pressure on the heart. This decreases _______ _______.

Hypotensive
Intrathoracic pressure
Cardiac output

36

What is the lowest PEEP setting?

5

37

What is the PEEP setting used for pulmonary edema patients?

7.5

38

What is the PEEP setting used for asthma/COPD patients?

5

39

What is PEEP?

Positive
End
Expiratory
Pressure

40

What are the phases of capnography?

I - respiratory baseline
II - reflects the appearance of CO2 in the alveoli
III - the highest level of the plateu
IV - the beginning of the inspiration phase

41

Capnogram showing the classic "shark fin" is consistent with:

COPD and asthma

42

An elevation in the baseline indicates:

Hyperventilation

43

Reduction in ETCO2 levels is consistent with:

Hyperventilation

44

Progressively low ETCO2 levels consistent with significant dead space is seen in:

Patients with pulmonary embolism

45

Progressive increase in ETCO2 levels is consistent with:

Hypoventilation

46

During inspiration, the lungs distend and activate:

Stretch receptors

47

According to the theory of hypoxic drive, respiratory stimulate is increased by:

Low PaO2

48

A high pitched musical whistle heard on inspiration/expiration while auscultation lungs is known as:

Wheezing