Adverse Effects Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Adverse Effects > Flashcards

Flashcards in Adverse Effects Deck (38):
1

Antidepressant with longest half life

Fluoxetine

2

Side effect of reboxetine and how can you ameliorate the side effect

Urinary hesitancy can be treated by a1A-adrenoceptor antagonist such as doxazosin or tamsulosin

3

Anticholinergic side effects

Dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, narrow angle glaucoma

4

Which antidepressant has significant anticholinergic side effects and is contraindicated in close angled glaucoma?

Paroxetine

5

Which mechanisms causes confusional state by antipsychotics?

Muscarinic receptor blockade

6

Catie trial

Irrespective of the prescribed drug, 74% discontinued treatment in 18 months. Olanzapine had lowest discontinuation rate (64%) but highest side effect burden

7

Medications used for clozapine induced hypersalivation

Pirenzepine (selective M1 & M4 antagonist), benzhexol (trihexphenidyl), hyoscine, amitriptyline, combination of benztropine and terazosin

8

Cholinergic side effects

GI side effects nausea, anorexia, muscle cramps, seizures

9

Which psychotropics can cause floppy baby syndrome?

Benzodiazepines

10

Diuretic that can be used to control lithium induced polyuria without causing lithium toxicity

Amiloride (potassium diuretic)

11

Side effects of MAOIs

Common- insomnia, postural hypotension, peripheral oedema, restlessness, nausea dizziness, sexual difficulties, sweating and tremor. Rare- hepatocellular jaindice, peripheral neuropathy, bone marrow suppression and cardiac arrthymias

12

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

-Risk in pts treated with conventional antipsychotics less than 0.5-1% -evolves rapidly over 24-72 hrs -lasts for 10-14 days of left untreated -is also seen very rarely with other drugs such as antipsychotics and lithium - s&s fluctuating bp, tachycardia, fever, confusion, diaphoresis, rigidity, raised ck, leukocytosis, altered lft

13

Mechanisms in weight gain side effect

H1 antagonism, 5HT2C antagonism, hyperprolactinaemia, increased serum leptin as a result of secondary leptin desensitisation

14

Which drug is associated with nephrolithiasis?

Topiramate is a weak inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase and can promote the developmental of renal stones

15

Which drug is contraindicated for a patient receiving MAO inhibitor?

Meperidine is an opioid that can interact with MAO inhibitor resulting in serotonin syndrome

16

Which antidepressant is associated with dystonia and orofacial dyskinesia

Paroxetine

17

Which antidepressant most commonly cause withdrawal syndrome

Paroxetine

18

Which antidepressant cause hyponaetraemia

Fluvoxamine and fluoxetine

19

Which SSRI cause less sexual dysfunction

Fluvoxamine

20

Which antidepressant cause hypoglycaemia

Fluoxetine

21

Treatment for akathisia

Propranolol, clonazepam, cyproheptadine, Trazodone, mianserin

22

CNS side effects like anxiety and agitation I. The initial few weeks of treatment with SSRIs are proposed to be due to

Overstimulation of 5HT2 receptors in the Limbic system

23

Terazosin

Alpha 1 blocker, is observed to be effective in reducing excessive sweating caused by antidepressant treatment, especially venlafaxine and SSRIs

24

Which SSRI is associated with erectile dysfunction more often than others

Sexual dysfunction due to activation of post synaptic 5HT 2 receptors is more prominent with paroxetine than with other SSRIs

25

Anticholinergic effect

Dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision and glaucoma

26

Common and early side effect of lithium

Fine tremors, polyuria, polydypsia, nausea, bad metallic taste, transient raised leucocyte and platelet count

27

Doxepine

Tricyclics with lower risk of orthostatic hypotension but highest antihistaminergic effect

28

Important difference between NMS and serotonin syndrome

Hyperreflexia and myoclonus in serotonin syndrome

29

Side effect of mianserin

Sedation, postural hypotension, blood dyscrasias and agranulocytosis, bone marrow suppression

30

Risk factors of tardive dyskinesia

Older age, female, pts with organic brain damage and affective disorders, those who have had acute EPSEs early on treatment

31

Hypertensive crisis during MAOI use can be managed by

Phentolamine or phenoxybenzamine

32

Tardive dystonia/tardive dyskinesia

Occurs after months to years of antipsychotic treatment

33

Alpha adrenergic blockade causes...

Postural hypotension, dizziness, tachycardia and arrthymias

34

TCAs

-Potentiates the effects of warfarin, alcohol, hypnotics, anxiolytics and antipsychotics -Reduce the antihypertensive actionof clonidine and guanethidine TCA level is increased by cimetidine

35

Moclobemide

MAOI-reversible

36

Antibiotic that can cause serotonin syndrome if combined with MAOIs

Linezolid, an antibiotic of the oxazolidone family, is a reversible, non selective MAOI used in the treatment of methicillin resistant staph aureus

37

Risk of ebstein’s anomaly in children of mothers taking lithium while pregnant

20 times (1 of 1000)

38

Priapism is a dreaded side effect associated with

Trazodone, risperidone