Flashcards in African American History Deck (45)
Brown vs. Board of Education
WHAT? The 1954 case that got passed that allowed for desegregation in schools "with all deliberate speed"
SO WHAT? Blacks and whites were now legally allowed to go to school together. Only applies to education.
WHAT? An Attorney who tries to push Civil Rights through education. He wins the Murray vs Maryland case, but it stays in the city courts so it has a small impact. Becomes head of the Legal Defense and Education Fund.
SO WHAT?Marshall argues in B vs. BOE which eventually gets pushed through. Thurgood Marshall becomes 1st black on Supreme Court.
A Global Struggle
WHAT: Globally people were being oppressed and under control of other countries. They applied Gandhi's principles of Non-Violence to these issues
SO WHAT? British rule gave India independence through these teachings. Ralph Bunche becomes adviser to U.S. delegation to the United Nations Charter committee and uses these teachings as well
1st undergrad to desegregate in south
1940 - 1st non-white (Chan's)
Willis Johnson - 1st black into EMC
Peggy Webb - 1st black to graduate
Clark Doll Test
WHAT? A study that was conducted in 1950 for evidence against segregated education. Kids would choose which dolls had each trait
SO WHAT? The study found that kids associated bad traits with black dolls and good traits with white dolls
Montgomery Bus Boycott
WHAT? Blacks begin to boycott the buses by car pooling,walking, etc. MLK organizes this bus boycott, and it begins when Rosa Parks is arrested for not giving up her seat. This gains national attention when MLK is arrested and buses start going bankrupt.
SO WHAT? The buses eventually desegregate which turns over Plessy vs. Ferguson.
Forcing Change (1957-1960)
WHAT? States are not complying with Brown vs BOE ruling. Eisenhower sends troops to Arkansas (Little Rock 9) to allow black student to enter safely. Puts state under Federal control
SO WHAT? Sending troops does not enforce chance. Forcing states to comply with the law does not work
WHAT? Activist running SCLC through church
SO WHAT? She targets the youth to get involved with the movement. The youth is more likely to join because they do more risky behavior.Organizes SNCC.
WHAT? Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee that students were willing to take risks and force attention to laws that were not being followed
did trainings, get local media attention, know your rights, know how to defend yourself. Helped coordinate sit-ins, freedom rides, Mississippi Freedom Summer, and Mississippi Democratic Party.
WHAT? blacks/whites ride together on bus to the south (New Orleans) to change the south's local laws. Blacks would sit in the white section and whites would sit in the black section to ensure racial equality.
SO WHAT? They are stopped multiple times by the Klan and white mobs. Being fire bombed, and beaten brutally multiple times when the buses came through different areas. RFK wanted to ensure the safety of the students. When they reached Mississippi, the only way to keep them safe was to put them in jail. Gains national attention, and shows them as the victim
WHAT? SNCC demands desegregation in the south. MLK helps organize and conduct this march. Laurie Pritchett (Chief of Police) doesn't want to gain national attention of violence like other events. Orders police not to hit, just arrest. MLK and members are arrested multiple times, but MLK runs out of members to march.
SO WHAT? The Albany Movement is a failure to the Civil Rights movement because nothing gets accomplished. MLK realizes that he needs to go to an area where conflict and violence will happen (Birmingham) and they become the victims. Laurie Prittchett is seen as hero to the south.
WHAT? The movement was moved from Albany to Birmingham because they knew it would be violent. HS kids were asked to march. Recognize how dangerous or good media coverage could be.
SO WHAT? March gains national media attention. Works well and MLK is arrested. Seen as a success to the Civil Rights Movement compared to Albany.
Big Ideas - Integration
Assumes the system can change and probem lies in laws and attitudes
tolerant of institutional powerl believes in ability for societal change
seeks union with others and assumes harmony among all groups
reform for change
Big Ideas - Liberation
assumes that the system is based on conscious efforts towards oppression
skeptical about all institutions of power and the ability for societal change
seeks self preservation and assumes conflict will happen as part of process
revolution for change
Mississippi Freedom Summer
get black ppl to register/vote
young folks show strong support
recruit college students to vote/register
creates the Mississippi Democratic party - for black folks
nominate Fannie Lou Hames as congressional delegate
gets involved with gangs
in jail 10 years; visited by ppl from Islam
Malcolm is advocate for separation; nat'l figure against Civil Rights
breaks away from Nation of Islam
creates Muslim Mosque, INC - united brotherhood
Nation of Islam angered - murders him
Black Panther Party
Oakland - working, poor class; race tensions rising
blacks were not used to being pushed back by police
Huey Newton/Bobby Seale - co found BPP; police stop harassing blacks
had political/social goals
seen as heros to community
WHAT? Becomes leader of SNCC in 1966, after John Lewis. Coined the term "Black Power". Joined Black Panther Party after leaving SNCC.
SO WHAT? Radicalized SNCC and promotes the black power/pride movement through it. Did believe in non-violence at first, but with the slow progress shifted towards black power movement
J. Edgar Hoover
get rid of black groupings
wanted to discredit BPP
MLK: Poor People's Campaign
starts to focus on economic issues (poor) rather than race issues
wants to get the poor to vote to have more power
"Poor People Campaign" march - pulls the poor together
LBJ's Great Society
pushed through Civil Rights
declares "War on Poverty"
puts in community action programs
taxes the wealthy; gives to the poor
programs to help the poor
Republicans hate it; loses south in election
minority love LBJ
WHAT? Gov't spent about 140 billion on Vietnam War and 10 billion on Great Society Programs.
SO WHAT? Spending The Vietnam War cut the Great Society Programs off. LBJ slowly begins to lose political power & trust of U.S.
The Kerner Commission
want to know how things are in the black community
see if they are getting better or worse
single mom is becoming the norm
black community is desegregating
WHAT? wrongly accused shooting;spent 7 months in jail; acquitted by all white jury
SO WHAT? Shows prisons are race based
changes name to Muhammad Ali
taunted for being Muslim
refused to go to Vietnam War (conscientious objector)
wins title back
WHAT? Films made with black actors for black audiences that were often stereotypical. Crossed racial lines as well
SO WHAT? Saved Hollywood. Also gave black actors more opportunities in Hollywood. Usually played stereotypical roles
blacks wanted black history in school
Yale was 1st to have black history major
weren't enough ppl to teach black studies
complicated to hire blac/white teachers for black history
Democrats lose southern support
Republicans want the southern vote back (Dixiecrats)
Nixon promotes state's rights and civil rights
southern states vote Republican - 1972
National Black Convention
gives blacks own political identity
Vernon Jordan - using the black vote to have a voice
"Gary Convention" - didn't know to form a 3rd party or stay with Democrats; just deiced to stay Democratic
The problem is that ppl don't vote/go out and vote